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Statistic terms

bootstrap
    [()] this is a form of randomisation test which is one of the alternatives to exhaustive re-randomisation. the bootstrap scheme involves generating subsets of the data on the basis of random sampl... бутстреп; (recomendamos usar el término original en inglés); самозагрузка; раскрутка; начальная загрузка; самонастройка; самообеспечение;; инициализация;; предзагрузчик; программа раскрутки;; выполнять начальную загрузку;
fisher test(2)
    [()] this is also known as the freeman-halton test. it is an extension of the logic of the fisher test(1), for a 2-way classification of counts where the extent of the cross-classification may be ...
bernouilli process
    [()] this is the simplest probability model - a single trial between two possible outcomes such as a coin toss. the distribution depends upon a single parameter,'p', representing the probability a...
stevens' typology
    [()] this is widely-observed scheme of distinctions between types of measurement scales according to the meaningfulness of arithmetic which may be performed upon data values. the types are : nomin...
shift algorithm
    [()]. algorithms employing branch-and-bound methods for the ptiman permutaion test(1) and the pitman permutation test(2).
normal distribution
  1. [] the normal distribution is a theoretical distribution applicable for continuous interval-scale data. it is related mathematically to the binomial and chi-square(2) distributions and to seve... распределение нормальное;
mann-whitney test
    [devised by ()] this is a test of difference in location for an experimental design involving two samples with data measured on an ordinal scale or better. the test statistic is a measure of ordin...
fortran
  1. [name is an acronym : formula translator]. a very long established and widely implemented programming language, specialised substantially for numerical applications. a number of standard progr... formula translation (computer language); formula translation language;
monte-carlo test
    [named after the famous site of gambling casinos] a monte-carlo test involves generating a random subset of the randomisation set, sampled without replacement, and using the values of the test sta...
pascal
  1. [named after the mathematician blaise pascal ( - )]. a programming language designed for clarity of expression when published in human-legible form, and for the teaching of programming. pascal... extended pascal; pa; паскаль, па; паскаль;
pitman permutation test(1)
    [named after the statistician e.j. pitman who described this test, and the pitman permutation test(2), in 1937; this is one of the earliest instances of an exact test(1)] an exact re-randomisation...
wilcoxon test(2)
    [named after the statistician f, wilcoxon ()] this is a test for an experimental design involving two independent groups of experimental units, where data need be only ordinal-scale. the purpose i...
wilcoxon test(1)
    [named after the statistician f, wilcoxon ()] this test applies to an experimental design involving two repeated measure observations on a common set of experimental units, which need be only ordi...
fisher test(1)
    [named after the statistician ra fisher()]. this is an exact test(1) to examine whether the pattern of counts in a 2x2 cross classification departs from expectations based upon the marginal totals...
chi-squared statistic
    [named by e.s. pearson ()?]. this is a long-established test statistic for measuring the extent to which a set of categorical outcomes depart from a hypothesised set of probabilities. it is calcul...
mid-p
    [proposed by h.o lancaster(), and further promoted by g.a. barnard] this is a tail definition policy that the alpha value should be calculated as the sum of the proportion of the tail for data str...
interval scale
  1. A characteristic of data such that the difference between two values measured on the scale has the same substantive meaning/significance irrespective of the common level of the two values bein... измерений шкалы;
randomisation distribution
    A collection of values of the test statistic obtained by undertaking a number of re-randomisations of the actual data within the randomisation set. also see : confidence interval, randomisation te...
relative power
    A comparison of two or more statistical tests, for the same experimental design, sample size, and nominal alpha criterion value, in terms of the respective values of power. also see : beta.
algorithm(1)
    A formal statement, clear complete and unambiguous, of how a certain process needs to be undertaken. also see : algorithm(2).
ordinal scale
    A measurement type for which the relative values of data are defined solely in terms of being lesser, equa-to or greater as compared with other data on the ordinal scale. these characteristics may... порядковая шкала;
non-parametric test
    A number of statistical tests were devised, mostly over the period 1930-1960, with the specific objective of by-passing assumptions about sampling from populations with data supposedly conforming ...
statistic
  1. A number or code derived by a prior-defined consistent process of calculation, from a set of data. also see : algorithm(1), test statistic.

  2. A number that can be computed from data, ... статистика; статистический;
continuous distribution
  1. A probability distribution of a continuous statistic, based upon an algebraic formula, such that for any possible value of the cumulative probability there is an exact corresponding value of t...
discrete distribution
  1. A probability distribution of some statistic, based upon an algebraic formula or upon re-randomisation or upon actual data, in which the cumulative probability increases in non-infinitesmal st...
poisson process
    A process whereby events occur independently in some continuum (in many applications, time), such that the overall density (rate) is statistically constant but that it is impossible to improve any...
compiler
  1. A program supplied especially for a particular type of computer, to enable the translation of code expressed in some programming language into object code for that computer. a compiler underta... recompilador .; compilador; компилятор;
standard programming language
    A programming language which has a publicly agreed common form across several different types of computer. such standardisation allows a program to be transported conveniently between the differen...
nominal alpha criterion level
    A publicly agreed value for type-1 error, such that the outcome of a statistical test is classified in terms of whether the obtained value of alpha is extreme as compared with this criterion level...
two-way table
    A representation of suitable data in a table organised as rows and columns, such that the rows represent one scheme of alternatives covering the whole of the the data represented, the columns repr... 2-way table;
decision rule
    A rule for comparing the outcome value of alpha with a nominal alpha criterion level (such as 0.05). an outcome value smaller (more extreme) than the nominal alpha criterion level leads to a decis...
random sample
  1. A sample drawn from a population in such a way that every individual of the population has an equal chance of appearing in the sample. this ensures that the sample is representative, and provi... случайная выборка; выборка;
program
  1. A sequence of instructions expressed in some programming language. also see algorithm(2).

  2. Программа

  3. Программа (ряд взаимосвязанных мероприятий по осуществлению проекта) программа свободного выбора и зачисления; программа преподавания английского как; программа выбора муниципальных школ по; программа; prog; вычислительная; программа для эвм; программа;; программировать;
exhaustive re-randomisation
    A series of samples from a randomisation set which is known to generate every randomisation. in particular, sampling which generates every randomisation exactly once.
pseudo-random
    A source of data which is effectively unpredictable although generated by a determinate process. successive pseudo-random data are produced by a fixed calculation process acting upon preceding dat... seed; псевдослучайный;
computer program
  1. A specification of how to undertake a certain process, usually expressed via a programming language, for some chosen computer. also see : program.

  2. Машинная программа

  3. Прог... comprog; scp sage; программа для пк;
test statistic
  1. A statistic measuring the strength of the pattern which a statistical test undertakes to detect. in the context of re-randomisation tests one is concerned with the distribution of the values o...
exact binomial test
    A statistical test referring to the binomial distribution in its exact algebraic form, rather than through continuous approximations which are used especially where sample sizes are substantial. a...
difference of means
    A test statistic of intuitive appeal for measuring difference in location between two samples with interval-scale data. employing this test statistic in an exact test defines the pitman permutatio...
exact test(2)
    A test which yields an alpha value which does not depend upon the nominal alpha criterion value which may have been set for alpha. this is in contrast to the possible practice of producing only a ...
rng
  1. Acronym for random number generator. this is a process which uses a arithmetic algorithm to generate sequences of pseudo-random numbers. also see : seed.

  2. Range
range;
re-randomisation statistics
    Also known as permutation or randomisation(1) statistics. these are the specific area of concern of this present glossary.
algorithm(2)
    An algorithm(1) expressed in a programming language for a computer .
odds ratio
    An alternative characterisation of the parameter 'p' for a binomial process is the ratio of the incidences of the two alternatives : p/(1-p) ; this quantity is termed the odds ratio; the value may... cociente de probabilidades; razón de momios; мантеля-хензеля; шансов отношение;
pitman permutation test(2)
    An exact re-randomisation test in which the test statistic is the mean difference of a single sample of univariate data measured under two circumstances as repeated measures. also see : pitman per...
degrees of freedom
  1. An integer value measuring the extent to which an experimental design imposes constraints upon the pattern of the mean values of data from various meaningful subsets of data. this value is fre...
branch-and-bound
    Exploration of a randomisation distribution in such a way as to anticipate the effect of the next randomisation(3) relative to the present randomisation(3). this allows selective search of particu...
minimal-change sequence
    Exploration of a randomisation distribution is such a sequence that the successive randomisation(3)s differ is a simple way. in the context of a ranodmisation test this can mean that the value of ...
confidence interval
  1. For a given re-randomisation distribution, a family of related distributions may be defined according to a range of hypothetical values of the pattern which the test statistic measures. for in... доверительный интервал; ci;
randomisation(1)
    Generation of whole or part of the randomisation set. also see : randomisation(3), re-randomisation.
tied ranks
    In a nonparametric test involving ranked data, if two data have tied values then they will deserve to receive the same rank value. it is generally agreed that this should be the average of the ran...
null hypothesis
  1. In order to test whether a supposed interesting pattern exists in a set of data, it is usual to propose a null hypothesis that the pattern does not exist. it is the unexpectedness of the degre... нулевая гипотеза;
pas2c
    One of a number of programs for undertaking translations between standard programming languages.
randomisation(3)
    One of the arrangements making up the randomisation set. these arranegments will be encountered in the act of randomisation(1). also see : branch and bound, minimal-change sequence.
p-value
  1. The alpha value arising from a statistical test. also see : exact test(2)

  2. Suppose we have a family of hypothesis tests of a null hypothesis that let us test the hypothesis at any si...
programmable
  1. The characteristic of a computer which enables it to be used to undertake a variety of different processes on different occasions. also see : algorithm(2), program, programming language, stand...
exact test(1)
    The characteristic of a re-randomisation test based upon exhaustive re-randomisation, that the value of alpha will be fixed irrespective of any random sampling of randomisations or upon any distri...
randomisation set
    The collection of possible re-randomisations of data within the constraints of the experimental design. also see : randomisation distribution.
poisson distribution
  1. The distribution of number of events in a given time, arising from a poisson process. this differs from the binomial distribution in that there is no upper limit, corresponding to the paramete... распределение пуассона;
factorial
  1. The factorial operator is applicable to a non-negative integer quantity. it is notated as the postfixed symbol '!'. the resulting value is the product of the increasing integer values from 1 u... факторный;
gold standard(1)
    The gold standard is the form of test which is most faithful to the randomisation distribution, for a given test statistic and experimental design. this involves exhaustive randomisation. other ra...
gold standard(2)
    The idea of a re-randomisation test as a standard of correctness by which to judge other tests which are not based upon principles of re-randomisation.
sample size
  1. The number of experimental units on which observations are considered. this may be less than the number of observations in a data-set, due to the possible multipying effects of multiple variab... размер выборки;
randomisation(2)
    The process of arranging for data-collection, in accordance with the experimental design, such that there should be no foreseeable possibilty of any systematic relationship between the data and an...
re-randomisation
    The process of generating alternative arrangements of given data which would be consistent with the experimental design. also see : bootstrap, exact test(2), exhaustive re-randomisation, monte-car...
randomisation test
    The rationale of a randomisation test involves exploring re-randomisations of the actual data to form the randomisation distribution of values of the test statistic. the outcome value value of the...
outcome value
    The value of the test statistic for the data as initially observed, before any re-randomisation..
tail definition policy
    This is a defined method for dividing a discrete distribution into a tail area and a body area. the scope for differing policies arises due to the non-infinitesmal amount of probability measure wh...
measurement type
    This is a distinction regarding the relationship between a phenomenon being measured and the data as recorded. the main distinctions are concerned with the meaningfulness of numerical comparisons ... scale type;
stratified
  1. This is a feature of an experimental design whereby a scheme of observations is repeated entirely using further sets (strata) of experimental units, with each such further set distinguished by... слоистый;
replications
    This is a feature of an experimental design whereby observations on an experimental unit are repeated under the same conditions. identification of the position of a particular observation within t...
repeated-measures
    This is a feature of an experimental design whereby several observations measured on a common scale refer to the same sampling unit. identification of the relation of the individual observations t...
binomial distribution
  1. This is a special case of the multinomial distribution where the number of possible outcomes is 2. it is the distribution of outcomes expected if a certain number of independent trials are und... распределение биномиальное;
binomial test
    This is a statistical test referring to a repeated binary process such as would be expected to generate outcomes with a binomial distribution. a value for the parameter 'p' is hypothesised (null h...
2-by-2 table
    This is a two-way table where the numbers of levels of the row- and column-classifications are each 2. if the row- and column- classifications each divide the observational units into subsets, the...
ratio scale
    This is a type of measurement scale for which it is meaningful to reason in terms of differences in scores (see interval scale) and also in terms of ratios of scores. such a scale will have a zero... измерений шкала;
nominal scale
    This is a type of measurement scale with a limited number of possible outcomes which cannot be placed in any order representing the intrinsic properties of the measurements. examples : female vers... измерений шкала;