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Глоссарий по ядерной энергетике

absorption
  1. With respect to radiation protection , absorption describes a mode by which radioactive materials may enter the body leading to an internal radiation hazard. for example it is well known that ... absn; properties; абсорбция, поглощение; мера звукопоглощающих свойств; поглощение абсорбция; absorp; абсорбция; absorción; щением; поглощение, включение; впитывание; всасывание;
active dosimeter
    An active dosimeter is used in dosimetry to measure radiation exposure, usually to individuals. being active, the dosimeter can provide real-time instant information about radiation dose and dose ...
active radiation detector
    An active radiation detector can describe either dosimetry or radiation measurement equipment which gives instantaneous real time information, rather than an accumulative count over a time period....
air sampling
    With respect to radiation protection , air sampling involves the collection of samples of air in order to measure and detect the presence of airborne radioactive material. this information can be ...
alara
    Alara: as low as reasonably achievable (social and economic factors being taken into account). this term was introduced by the icrp and requires that all be reasonably done to lower radiation expo...
annihilation (positron - electron)
    Annihilation (positron - electron) radiation occurs when an electron (negatively charged) collides with a positron (positively changed & the electron’s anti-particle). the usual result is the emis...
atomic mass
    The atomic mass represents the total number of protons & neutrons in an atom. for example, in the carbon 14 atom shown above there are 6 (red) protons and 8 (blue) neutrons packed into the nucleus...
atomic number
  1. The number of protons within an atom . e.g. uranium-238 (92) contains 92 protons. also gives the number of electrons .

  2. Атомное число
atno;
background radiation
    Ionising radiation in our environment which we are all exposed to, the exact magnitude depending on our location in the world. examples include radon gas , cosmic rays and k-40.
becquerel
  1. The si unit for activity . the becquerel (bq) is equivalent to 1 disintegration per second (dps) . also see the older unit of activity, the curie .

  2. An si unit of measurement of radi...
beta particle
    The beta particle has the form of a high speed negatively charged electron (or a positively charged electron in the case of the positron). in beta decay (electron emission) a neutron in the nucleu...
biological dosimetry
    Biological dosimetry is a branch of the field of dosimetry which uses biological samples, usually taken from individuals who have been exposed to radioactive materials, as a means to assess intake...
biological half-life
    The biological half-life is the time taken for half of a radioactive material, (present in a body as a result of inhalation , ingestion , injection or absorption ), to be eliminated by the biologi...
brachytherapy
  1. Brachytherapy is a cancer treatment where radioactive seeds (sealed sources ) are placed in or near a tumour, therefore giving a high radiation dose to the tumour while reducing the radiation ...
braking radiation
    See bremsstrahlung radiation.
bremsstrahlung
    Bremsstrahlung, also known as braking radiation occurs when ever a charged particle undergoes a change of velocity as it interacts with an absorber. electromagnetic radiation (x-rays ) are the res...
cherenkov radiation
    Cherenkov radiation is electromagnetic (non-ionising) radiation emitted when a charged particle (e.g. an electron ) passes through a medium (e.g. water) at a speed greater than that of light in th...
chronic exposure
  1. Exposure to sources of ionising radiation over a long period of time, possibly resulting in adverse health effects such as cancer or genetic disorders in offspring of exposed parents. likely r...
collective dose
    More accurately known as collective effective dose . this quantity is derived from summing the individual effective doses within an exposed population (or workforce). one type of unit to express t...
consumer products
    Any household product that contains a quantity of radioactive material yielding ionising radiation for reasons of functionality of that item. examples include ionisation smoke detectors and lumini...
contamination
  1. Usually an undesirable situation where radioactive material in an unsealed source (open source) state is present in the working environment, or otherwise un-contained and not required. contami... contam; contaminación; контаминация; загрязнение; примесь; порча; заражение; ухудшение; порча (данных); загрязнение;; заражение (компьютерным вирусом); dilution;
controlled area
  1. Controlled area is defined in the ionising radiations regulations 1999. a controlled area is an area where any person is likely to receive more than 6 msv effective dose (or 3/10 of any other ...
curie
  1. The curie (ci) is the traditional unit of activity (where its si equivalent in the becquerel ). 1 ci is equivalent to 3.7 e10 disintegrations per second (dps) and since 1bq=1dps it follows tha... кюри;
decay constant
  1. The decay constant represents the probability of a decay of a radioactive material per unit time.

  2. Коэффициент затухания; постоянная затухания; постоянная времени затухания
decommissioning
    A general term applied to situations were nuclear plant (or any other plant containing sources of ionising radiations ) comes to the end of its useful life. decommissioning is then required in ord...
decontamination
  1. A general expression applied to situations where undesirable contamination is removed from plant, fixtures, fittings or people. this process may simply be wiping up the contamination with a ti... decontn; descontaminación; обеззараживание;
depleted uranium
    A by-product of enriched uranium production. depleted uranium can be used as radiation shielding) (approximately twice as effective as lead for gamma rays), battle armour and in conventional weapo...
detector
  1. A general term applied to parts of instruments which are designed to detect ionising radiation . ionising radiations interact with the detector, the detector converts this interaction into a s... det; sensor.; детектор; детекторный; детектирования; обнаружитель; излучения; устройство обнаружения; детектор;; демодулятор;; элемент, детектирующий;
deterministic effect
    A deterministic effect describes ionising radiation induced damage where a dose threshold exists, and for which the severity of damage increases with increasing dose above that threshold. examples...
disposal
  1. A general term applied to radioactive wastes which require disposal, for which there is no intention of recovery. in reality there may be circumstances where some capability for recovery is ma... выбытие; disposición; tría .; arreglo; descarga; expurgo; освобождение; выбытие;; устранение; избавление;;
dose limits
    With respect to radiation protection , dose limits are recommended by international bodies such as the icrp , and then set as legal limits within individual counties legislation. for example, in t...
dosimeter
  1. A general term applied to devices designed to record personal exposure , as apposed to environmental exposure . the devices may be in the form of a passive dosimeter or an active dosimeter . p... дозиметр;
dosimetry
  1. Dosimetry is a general term applied to the practice of measuring radiation exposure. dosimetry is a very large area of radiation protection , see dosimeter , passive dosimetry , active dosimet... дозиметрия;
effective dose
  1. The effective dose is obtained by taking the equivalent dose (dose equivalent ) and multiplying by a tissue weighting factor which relates to the organs / tissues under consideration. effectiv...
electron
  1. The electron is a low mass particle ( 1/1836 that of a proton ) with a unit negative electric charge. in simple terms the electrons are said to orbit around the nucleus of atoms . positively c... электрона; электронов; радиолампа; нитный; ческий; электрон; электроннонаведенный; электроннооптический; электронный; электроноотталкивающий; электроноотдающий; электрон;; электронный electron beam recordingзапись электронным лучом; детектор,ламповый;
element
  1. An element represents the simplest form of a chemical where all the atoms share the same atomic number . this will include, for example, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon.

  2. Элемент; компон... el; elem; стихия; непогода; building . elementary school, grade school an educational institution which offers instruction usually from the first year through the sixth or eighth year of schooling.; элемент;
enriched uranium
    Uranium where the content u-235 is increased above its natural value of around 0.7% by weight. the enrichment process will also yield depleted uranium . enriched uranium is fissile and can undergo...
environmental decontamination
    With respect to radiation protection , environmental decontamination refers to the systematic clean-up of radioactive contamination within the workplace or wider environment. also see personal dec...
environmental exposure
    With respect to radiation protection , environmental exposure refers to ionising radiation exposure within the workplace or wider environment. also see personal exposure .
erythema
  1. Erythema presents itself as a reddening of the skin which is caused by blood vessel dilation. it is a common sign of deterministic radiation effects , particularly from high energy beta emitte... eritema;
exemption orders
    Exemption orders were made under the uk radioactive substances act 1960 as statutory instruments , now superseded by the radioactive substances act 1993 (despite this, the orders remain legally va...
external radiation
    The external radiation (hazard) exists where an absorber (typically a person) is being exposed to a source of ionising radiation external to the body. examples would include exposures to sealed so...
fallout
  1. Fallout is a general term applied to radioactive materials, produced by detonation of a nuclear device in the atmosphere, which fall back to earth. fallout can sometimes be thought of as a sec... fo;
fast neutrons
    Neutrons which have been ejected from a fissioning nucleus . (also see thermal neutrons ).
film badge
    The film badge is a type of passive dosimeter . it consists of a photographic emulsion film, which responds to ionising radiation by changing optical density, in a light tight wrapping (contained ...
fission
  1. (nuclear) fission is the process where a heavy nuclei (e.g. u-235) decays by splitting into two equal fragments (fission fragments). this process proceeds with the emission of neutrons and gam... ядерная; деления; расщепление, деление;
fluence rate
    Fluence can be defined as the total number of particles (typically gamma ray photons ) crossing over a sphere of unit cross section which surrounds a point source of ionising radiation . the fluen...
free radical
    Free radicals can be formed in biological materials (e.g. dna ) when they undergo ionisation (by interaction with ionising radiation ). the free radical can be thought of as a reactive charged mol...
gamma rays
    Gamma rays are a type of high energy electromagnetic electromagnetic spectrum in the form of photons which have no mass. in radioactive decay they originate from changes in the structure and energ...
gamma-ray constant (specific)
    The (specific) gamma-ray constant is a useful numerical quantity which is used to predict exposure in terms of equivalent dose per unit activity per unit distance. as the term is a constant, dista...
genetic effects
    Genetics effects (with respect to radiation protection ) are those effects present in the offspring of those exposed to probabilistic / stochastic levels of ionising radiation .
glove box
    The glove box is a type of enclosure used to completely contain radioactive materials, thus separating them from the operator who needs to manipulate them. they are normally constructed from eithe...
half-life
  1. Half-life is closely related to the property of radioactive decay and represents the time taken for half the atoms in a radioactive substances to undergo decay and change into another nuclear ... период;
half-life (biological)
    The biological half-life is the time taken for half of a radioactive material, (present in a body as a result of inhalation , ingestion , injection or absorption ), to be eliminated by the biologi...
health physics
    A term used for the practice of radiological protection. a practitioner may be known as a health physicist or perhaps in the uk a radiation protection adviser (rpa) .
hereditary effects
    Hereditary effects (with respect to radiation protection ) are those effects present in the offspring of those exposed to probabilistic / stochastic levels of ionising radiation. see genetic effec...
icrp
  1. The international commission on radiological protection (icrp) is an independent registered charity, established to advance, for the public benefit, the science of radiological protection, in ... international commission for radiological;
ingestion
  1. With respect to radiation protection , ingestion describes one possible mode by which radioactive materials may enter the body and therefore present an internal radiation protection hazard. in...
internal radiation
    The internal radiation (hazard) exists where radioactive materials enter the body. the materials can enter via inhalation, ingestion, absorption or injection. once in the body they will enter the ...
inverse square law
  1. The inverse square law applies to any entity which radiates out from a point in space (see point source and fluence rate to expand on this concept). with respect to radiation protection , the ...
ion
  1. An ion is a charged atom or molecule. the ion is charged because the number of electrons do not equal the number of protons in the atom or molecule. if the atom or molecule contains an excess ... institute of navigation; ион; internetworking over non-broadcast;
ion pair
    Ion pairs are created when an atom or molecule undergoes the process of ionisation . they either loose or gain electrons leading a net positive or negative charge. in simple terms, if water (h2o) ...
ionisation
    Ionisation is the process where by an atom or molecule gains or looses an electron and thus becomes an ion . ionising radiation has sufficient energy to be able to ionise atoms and molecules and t...
ionisation chamber
    The ionisation chamber is a device designed to measure ionising radiation exposure. in simple terms it consists of a chamber which may either be sealed (containing a gas) or vented to free air. wi...
isotope
  1. An isotope represents atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons . they therefore have different atomic masses but the same chemical prop... isótopo; изотоп; дикатора; изотопов;
joule
  1. The joule (j) is the si unit of energy. one joule is the energy expended when a force of one newton is applied over a displacement of one meter in the direction of the force. the use of the jo... j; джоуль; джоуль (единица измерения энергии, работы;
ld-50
    In general terms, ld-50 is used as an index to describe effectiveness of some entity producing a response in a subject, where that response occurs in 50% of the subjects. in radiation protection i...
line source
    With respect to ionising radiation , a line source describes a radioactive source which can be represented by a line between points a-b in any chosen plane. calculations of dose rates from line so...
linear attenuation coefficient
    The linear attenuation coefficient is used in the description and calculation of exponential absorption of gamma rays . the quantity normally has the dimensions cm-1 and describes the fraction of ...
linear dose response
    Linear dose response in radiation protection relates to the zero-threshold model which predicts that every small addition of radiation exposure contributes to an increment in the probability of a ...
low level waste (llw)
    Low level waste (llw) consists mainly of items such as protective clothing, laboratory equipment, packing materials, containers and site equipment which have come into contact with radioactive mat...
moderator
  1. General term for materials used in nuclear reactors to reduce the energy (speed) of fast neutrons to that of thermal (slow) neutrons . the thermal neutrons are then able to interact and fissio... замедлителем;
neutrino
    The neutrino is a particle with no mass or charge. it is emitted during beta decay during the emission of a beta particle. it has no great significance with respect to radiation protection but gre... нейтрино;
non-ionising radiation
    Non-ionising radiation dose not have the ability to ionise matter it interacts with. examples include radiowaves and microwaves.
occupational exposure
    With respect to radiation protection , occupational exposure is an exposure which occurs during work with sources of ionising radiation . for example, exposures received from working on a nuclear ... професиональное облучение * облучение, связанное с условиями работы см, также occupational radiation;
open source
    With respect to radiation protection , an open source is a source of ionising radiation in the form of radioactive material which is not encapsulated or otherwise contained. the implication is tha... открытый код;
over exposure
    With respect to radiation protection , an over exposure means a person who has received an unexpected (non-routine) level of ionising radiation exposure above some permitted level (dose limits ). ...