Глоссарий



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Глоссарий по астрономии

accretion
    Accumulation of dust and gas into larger bodies such as stars, planets and moons.
adams, john couch 1819-1892
    English astronomer and mathematician who, at the age of 24, was the first person to predict the position of a planetary mass beyond uranus. but, unfortunately, adams did not publish his prediction...
albedo
    The ratio of the amount of light reflected by an object and the amount of incident light; a measure of the reflectivity or intrinsic brightness of an object (a white, perfectly reflecting surface ... альбедо;
antipodal point
    The point that is directly on the opposite side of the planet
aphelion
    The point in its orbit where a planet is farthest from the sun; when refering to objects orbiting the earth the term apogee is used; the term apoapsis is used for orbits around other bodies. (oppo...
arago, dominique francois jean 1786 - 1853
    French astronomer and physicist and director of the paris observatory, who discovered the phenomenon of the production of magnetism by rotation
arcuate
    Having the form of a bow; curved; arc-shaped
asteroid
    (also "planetoid") a medium-sized rocky object orbiting the sun; smaller than a planet, larger than a meteoroid
asteroid number
    Asteroids are assigned a serial number when they are discovered. it has no particular meaning except that asteroid n+1 was discovered after asteroid n. (see appendix 5)
atmosphere
    = 1.013 bars = 1.03 kg/cm2 = 14.7 pounds per square inch, standard atmospheric pressure at sea level on earth.
bar
    = 0.987 atmosphere = 1.02 kg/cm2 = 100 kilopascal = 14.5 lbs/square inch.
bolide
    A fireball that produces a sonic boom
bond, william cranch 1789-1859
    One of the earliest american astronomers of note; rose from poverty and overcame a lack of formal education to become the first director of the harvard college observatory where he studied saturn ...
caldeira
    Crater formed by an explosion or collapse of a volcanic vent.
carbonate
    A compound containing carbon and oxygen (i.e. calcium carbonate a.k.a. limestone).
catena
    Chain of craters.
cavus
    Hollow, irregular depression.
chaos
    Distinctive area of broken terrain.
chasma
    Canyon.
chromosphere
    The lower level of the solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the corona
colles
    Small hills or knobs.
comet
    A medium-sized icy object orbiting the sun; smaller than a planet
congress
    The legislative branch of the us government; has proven to be a much more hostile environment for scientific spacecraft than the vastness of space.
copernicus, nicolaus 1473-1543
    Polish astronomer who advanced the heliocentric theory that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun. this was highly controversial at the time as the ptolemaic view of the universe, whi...
corona
  1. Ovoid-shaped feature.

  2. The uppermost level of the solar atmosphere, characterized by low densities and high temperatures (> 1.0e+06° k).
coronagraph
    A special telescope which blocks light from the disk of the sun in order to study the faint solar atmosphere.
cosmic ray
    An extremely energetic (relativistic) charged particle.
crater
    Bowl-shaped depression formed by the impact of a meteorite; depression around the orifice of a volcano.
density
    Measured in grams per cubic centimeter (or kilograms per liter); the density of water is 1.0; iron is 7.9; lead is 11.3.
dinosaurs
    Large reptiles that lived in the mesozoic era from 230 to 65 million years ago; most probably wiped out by the impact of a large asteroid or comet.
disaster
    Literally "bad stars"; particularly apt in reference to a major asteroid impact.
disk
    The visible surface of the sun (or any heavenly body) projected against the sky.
doppler effect
    The apparent change in wavelength of sound or light caused by the motion of the source, observer or both. (see also)
dorsum
    Ridge.
effusive eruption
    A relative quiet volcanic eruption which puts out basaltic lava that moves at about the speed one walks; the lava is fluid in nature; the eruptions at the kilauea volcano on the island of hawaii a...
einstein, albert 1879-1955
    German-american physicist; developed the special and general theories of relativity which along with quantum mechanics is the foundation of modern physics. (see fusion, speed of light) (96k gif)
ellipse
    Oval. that the orbits of the planets are ellipses, not circles, was first discovered by johannes kepler based on the careful observations by tycho brahe.
erg/sec
    = 1e-10 kilowatts.
excentrique
    The eccentricity of an ellipse (planetary orbit) is the ratio of the distance between the focii and the major axis. equivalently the eccentricity is (ra-rp)/(ra+rp) where ra is the apoapsis distan...
explosive eruption
    A dramatic volcanic eruption which throws debris high into the air for hundreds of miles; lava is low in silicate; can be very dangerous for people near by; an example is mount st. helens in 1980<...
exponential notation
    "1.23e4" means "1.23 times 10 to the fourth power" or 12,300; "5.67e-8" means "5.67 divided by 10 to the eighth power" or 0.0000000567.
facula
    Bright spot.
farrum
    Pancake-like structure
filament
    A strand of cool gas suspended over the photosphere by magnetic fields, which appears dark as seen against the disk of the sun; a filament on the limb of the sun seen in emission against the dark ...
fireball
    A meteor brighter than magnitude -3
flare
    A sudden eruption of energy on the solar disk lasting minutes to hours, from which radiation and particles are emitted.
flexus
    Cuspate (pointed) linear feature.
fluctus
    Flow terrain.
fossa
    Long, narrow, shallow depression.
franklin, benjamin 1706-1790
    American public official, writer, and scientist. played a major part in the american revolution and helped draft the constitution. his numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lig...
gaia hypothesis
    Named for the greek earth goddess gaea, holds that the earth as a whole should be regarded as a living organism and that biological processes stabilize the environment. first advanced by british b...
gegenschein
    A round or elongated spot of light in the sky at a point 180 degrees from the sun. also called counterglow.
greenhouse effect
    Increase in temperature caused when incoming solar radiation is passed but outgoing thermal radiation is blocked by the atmosphere (carbon dioxide is the major factor). very important on venus and...
hale, george ellery 1868-1938
    American astronomer who founded the yerkes, mt. wilson and palomar observatories. (72k gif)
hall, asaph 1829-1907
    American astronomer who discovered the two moons of mars, deimos and phobos.
heliocentric
    Sun-centered; see copernicus, kepler, galileo.
heliopause
    The point at which the solar wind meets the interstellar medium or solar wind from other stars.
heliosphere
    The space within the boundary of the heliopause containing the sun and solar system.
herschel, sir william 1738-1822
    British astronomer who discovered uranus and cataloged more than 800 double stars and 2,500 nebulae. (365k html/gif)
ice
    Used by planetary scientists to refer to water, methane, and ammonia which usually occur as solids in the outer solar system.
inquisition, the
    A renaissance catholic court instituted to seek out and prosecute heretics.
interplanetary magnetic field (imf)
    The magnetic field carried with the solar wind.
kelvin (k)
    0 kelvin is absolute zero; water melts at 273 k (= 0° c = 32° f); water boils at 373 k (= 100° c = 212° f). (developed by william thomson).
kilogram (kg)
    = 1000 grams = 2.2 pounds, the mass of a liter of water. (see also)
kilometer (km)
    = 1000 meters = 0.62 miles.
kowal, charles t. 1940-
    American astronomer; discovered leda and the comet-like object 2060 chiron (aka 95 p/chiron).
kuiper, gerard 1905-1973
    Dutch-born american astronomer best known for his study of the surface of the moon; discovered miranda and nereid, found an atmosphere on titan. (dr.kuiper was solidly americanized; his name is pr...
labes
    Landslide.
labyrinthus
    Intersecting valley complex.
lacus
    Lake.
lagrange, joseph louis 1736-1813
    French (originally italian, giuseppe luigi lagrangia; born in turin, moved to paris and became a french citizen) mathematician and astronomer; made a number of contributions to the study of celest...
le verrier, urbain jean joseph 1811-1877
    French mathematician whose prediction of the position of an undiscovered planet (neptune) that caused perturbations in the orbit of uranus was the first to be confirmed (by galle) though adams had...
lidar
    An instrument similar to radar that operates at visible wavelengths.
light-year
    = 9.46053e12 km (= 5,880,000,000,000 miles = 63,239 au); the distance traveled by light in a year.
limb
    The outer edge of the apparent disk of a celestial body
linea
    Elongate marking.
liter
    = 1000 cm3 = 1.06 us quarts