Глоссарий

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Глоссарий по астрономии - страница 1

gaia hypothesis
    Named for the greek earth goddess gaea, holds that the earth as a whole should be regarded as a living organism and that biological processes stabilize the environment. first advanced by british b...
gegenschein
    A round or elongated spot of light in the sky at a point 180 degrees from the sun. also called counterglow.
greenhouse effect
    Increase in temperature caused when incoming solar radiation is passed but outgoing thermal radiation is blocked by the atmosphere (carbon dioxide is the major factor). very important on venus and...
heliocentric
    Sun-centered; see copernicus, kepler, galileo.
heliopause
    The point at which the solar wind meets the interstellar medium or solar wind from other stars.
heliosphere
    The space within the boundary of the heliopause containing the sun and solar system.
ice
    Used by planetary scientists to refer to water, methane, and ammonia which usually occur as solids in the outer solar system.
interplanetary magnetic field (imf)
    The magnetic field carried with the solar wind.
kelvin (k)
    0 kelvin is absolute zero; water melts at 273 k (= 0° c = 32° f); water boils at 373 k (= 100° c = 212° f). (developed by william thomson).
kilogram (kg)
    = 1000 grams = 2.2 pounds, the mass of a liter of water. (see also)
kilometer (km)
    = 1000 meters = 0.62 miles.
labes
    Landslide.
labyrinthus
    Intersecting valley complex.
lacus
    Lake.
lidar
    An instrument similar to radar that operates at visible wavelengths.
light-year
    = 9.46053e12 km (= 5,880,000,000,000 miles = 63,239 au); the distance traveled by light in a year.
limb
    The outer edge of the apparent disk of a celestial body
linea
    Elongate marking.
liter
    = 1000 cm3 = 1.06 us quarts
lumiere zodicale
    A faint glow from light scattered off of interplanetary dust along the plane of the ecliptic.
macula
    Dark spot.
magnetotail
    The portion of a planetary magnetosphere which is pushed in the direction of the solar wind.
magnitude
    The degree of brightness of a celestial body designated on a numerical scale, on which the brightest star has magnitude -1.4 and the faintest visible star has magnitude 6, with the scale rule such...
mare
    Literally "sea" (a very bad misnomer, still in use for historical reasons); really a large circular plain
mensa
    Mesa, flat-topped elevation.
metal
    Used by astrophysicists to refer to all elements except hydrogen and helium, as in: "the universe is composed of hydrogen, helium and traces of metals".
meteorite
    A rock of extra-terrestrial origin found on earth
meteoroid
    A small rocky object orbiting the sun; smaller than an asteroid
millibar
    1/1000 of a bar. standard sea-level pressure is about 1013 millibars.
minor planets
    The official term used for asteroids.
mons
    Mountain (plural: montes)
neutrino
    A fundamental particle supposedly produced in massive numbers by the nuclear reactions in stars. they are very hard to detect since the vast majority of them pass completely through the earth with...
oceanus
    Literally "ocean"; really a large circular plain
old
    A planetary surface that has been modified little since its formation typically featuring large numbers of impact craters (compare young).
ovoid
    Shaped like an egg
palus
    Literally "swamp"; really a small plain
parsec
    = 206265 au = 3.26 light year