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Meteorological Glossary

air density
  1. The mass density of a parcel of air expressed in units of mass per volume.

  2. Плотность воздуха
плотность воздуха; ad;
allard's law
    A basic equation in night visual range theory, relating the illuminance of a point source of light to distance and the transmissivity of the atmosphere.
alter shield
    A type of wind shield used around the mouth of a precipitation gage to reduce the effect of wind on catch.
analog
  1. Pertaining to measurements or devices in which the output varies continuously (e.g., voltage or rotation signals); compare to digital.

  2. Аналоговый

  3. Аналог; аналоговый
    аналоговый; anl; аналог;; модель;; моделируемый;
anemometer
  1. A general term for instruments designed to measure the speed or force of the wind.

  2. Instrument for measuring velocity of airflow.

  3. An instrument for measuring the velocity ... анемометр;
asos
    Automated surface observing system. a network of instrumented weather stations deployed primarily by the u.s. national weather service to make weather observations without observer involvement. automatic surface observation system;
awos
  1. Automated weather observing system. a federal aviation administration specification describing an automatic weather station capable of making aviation weather observations without operator inv... automated weather observation system; antisubmarine warfare operators school;
barometric pressure
    The atmospheric pressure at a given point due to the gravitational force on the column of air above it.
bp; барометрическое; барометрическое давление; барометрическая высота; atmospheric pressure. baroque a european style of architecture and decoration which developed in the 17th cent. in italy from late renaissance and mannerist forms, and culminated in the churches, monasteries,;
bimetallic thermometer
    A thermometer, the sensitive element of which consists of two metal strips which have different coefficients of expansion and are brazed together. the distortions of the system in response to temp...
ceilometer
    Instrument used to measure cloud base height.
celsius
  1. A temperature scale having the freezing point of pure water at 0° and the boiling point at 100° under standard sea level pressure.

  2. Цельсий; по шкале цельсия

  3. A metric scal... cel;
centigrade temperature scale
    The older name for the celsius temperature scale. the use of this name was officially abandoned by international agreement in 1948.
cloud height
    The height of the cloud base above the local terrain.
compass points
  1. The cardinal points of the compass: n, nne, ne, etc.

  2. Before the arrival of modern instruments accurate enough to be calibrated from 0° to 360° (with finer readings possible) compass...
conformal coating
    A protective coating applied to circuits usually by spray deposition.
crosswind
  1. A wind blowing perpendicular to the course of a moving object. often used when referring to winds affecting ballistics.

  2. Боковой ветер crow 1. лапчатый лом 2. хомут jim ~ ручной рель... боковой ветер; вертолет-кран;
cup anemometer
    Anemometer which measures wind speed by the speed of rotation of 3 or 4 hemispherical or conical cups, each fixed to the end of a horizontal arm projecting from a vertical axis.
damping ratio
  1. A parameter used to describe the response of a wind vane to a sudden change in wind direction. it is defined as the ratio of the actual damping to the critical damping, where critical damping ... dr; коэффициент демпфирования;
dead band
  1. The range through which the input may be varied without initiating a response; usually expressed as a percentage of full-scale range.

  2. Зона нечувствительности

  3. Мертвая зона... db; мертвая зона;
delay distance
    The passage of air necessary over a wind vane to cause the vane to respond to 5o% of a step function change in wind direction.
delta temperature
    The difference between temperature measurements taken at two significant levels above the ground. temperatures at 10 and 40 meters are commonly used.
dewpoint temperature
    The temperature to which a given parcel of air must be cooled at constant pressure and constant water vapor content in order for saturation to occur. any further cooling usually results in the for...
distance constant
    The passage of air necessary over a wind speed sensor to cause the sensor to respond to 63% of a step function change in wind speed.
drybulb temperature
    The actual temperature of the air, used for comparison with wet bulb temperature.
firmware
  1. Programs or instructions which are stored in read-only memory.

  2. An often-used micro program or instruction set stored in rom. usually refers to the rom-based software that controls a... микропрограммные средства; программно-аппаратные средства; встроенные программы; аппаратно-программное обеспечение; микропрограммное обеспечение; микропрограммы; программы, записанные в пзу; аппаратное реализованное программное обеспечение;; программируемое оборудование;;
freezing point
  1. Temperature of solidification of a liquid under given conditions.

  2. Точка замерзания
fp; точка замерзания;
headwind
  1. A wind blowing in a direction opposite to the course of a moving object. often used when referring to winds affecting ballistics.

  2. Встречный ветер

  3. A wind blowing from dire... встречный ветер; указатель курса;
hot film anemometer
    Anemometer which measures wind speed by measuring the degree of cooling of a metal film heated by an electric current.
hygrothermograph
    Instrument resulting from the combination of a thermograph and a hygrograph and furnishing, on the same chart, simultaneous time recording of ambient temperature and humidity.
termohigrógrafo .;
hysteresis
  1. The difference noted in a sensor's output as a response to first an increasing, and then a decreasing, input signal of the same value. if yi is the value of the output with an increasing input... гистерезис; histéresis; гистерезис;; неоднозначная зависимость; область неоднозначности;
iso-elastic spring
    A spring which is designed to achieve a fixed spring constant over a wide temperature range. usually, this involves the use of an alloy with high nickel content such as ni-span c. it is common for...
kelvin temperature scale
    An absolute temperature scale based upon the triple point of pure water defined as 273.16° k. the size of the degree is the same as on the celsius scale, and the zero point is absolute zero.
koschmieder's law
    A basic equation in daytime visual range theory, relating the apparent luminance of a distant black object, the apparent luminance of the background-sky above the horizon, and the extinction coeff...
langley
  1. A unit of energy per unit area, equal to 1 gramcalorie/cm² and commonly employed in radiation measurement.

  2. The unit of solar energy relating to the amount which reaches a speci... ленгли;
lidar
  1. Light detecting and ranging. a technique used to detect atmospheric constituents or related parameters such as atmospheric extinction coefficient. light is produced in a modulated source and t... light direction and ranging; лидар, устройство определения направления и расстояния при помощи луча света; laser intensity direction and ranging;
linearity
  1. The maximum departure of an instrument's actual response curve from the "best fit" straight line response. it applies only to instruments with more or less linear response, and is usually stat... линейность, коэффициент нелинейных искажений; линейность; lin; линейность;; отклонение от прямой;
liquid thermometer
    Thermometer in which the difference in the rates of expansion with temperature of a liquid and its receptacle is used as a measure of the temperature. the liquid used may be ethyl alcohol, toluene...
local visual distance
    The meteorological visual range, which can be estimated from the average extinction coefficient using the koschmieder equation
low level wind shear
    A local variation in the wind direction or speed. this condition can present danger to aircraft, especially at landing, when a sudden shift from headwind to tailwind can cause a rapid loss of airs...
maximum thermometer
    Thermometer used for measuring the highest temperature attained during a given interval of time; for example, a day.
microbarograph
    An aneroid barograph designed to record atmospheric pressure changes of very small magnitude.
minimum thermometer
    Thermometer used for measuring the lowest temperature attained during a given interval of time; for example, a day.
mixing ratio
    In a system of moist air, the dimensionless ratio of the mass of water vapor to the mass of dry air.
nephelometer
    An instrument used to measure the scattering coefficient of an air sample caused by suspended particles. the measurement can be used to determine the visual range through the medium.
нефелометр;
newtonian telescope
    A reflecting type telescope with a 45° mirror, so that the primary image is observed through a hole in the side of the tube.
nws
  1. The national weather service, administered by the u.s. department of commerce, and responsible for the collection of weather data, the routine production of weather forecasts, and the issuance... national weather service; national weather station; naval weapons station; nose-wheel steering; national weather service (noaa);
operational weather limits
    The limiting values of ceiling, visibility and wind, or runway visual range, established as safety minima for aircraft landings and take-offs.
osha
  1. The occupational safety and health administration, a regulatory office of the u.s. department of labor.

  2. Occupational safety and health administration
occupational safety and health administration; управление по технике безопасности и гигиене труда (сша);
parallel output
  1. An output which has a separate communication path (or wire) for each bit of a digital character this form of transmission makes each bit available simultaneously, and thus results in very fast...
photometer
  1. Instrument that measures luminous intensity, luminous flux, light distribution or color.

  2. An instrument which measures luminous intensity.

  3. Any instrument that measures pho... фотометр;
potentiometer
  1. A variable resistor having three terminals and a movable wiper. precision potentiometers can be used to create a variable resistance proportional to angular or linear displacement.

  2. ... датчик потенциометрический то же: потенциометр.; послегарантийное обслуживание; потенциометр то же: датчик потенциометрический.; потенциометр;
pressure tendency
    (barometric tendency) the change in barometric pressure within a specified period of time (typically 3 hours for meteorological observations).
pyranometer
  1. Instrument which measures diffuse and direct solar radiation.

  2. Пиранометр (прибор для измерения полной радиации)
пиранометр;
rain gage
    Instrument for measuring the depth of water from precipitation that is assumed to be distributed over a horizontal, impervious surface and not subject to evaporation.
rawinsonde
    A method of upper air observation consisting of an evaluation of the wind speed and direction, temperature, pressure,and humidity aloft by means of a balloon-borne radiosonde tracked by radar or a...
response time
  1. The time required for an instrument to register a designated percentage (frequently 90%) of a step change in the variable being measured.

  2. Быстродействие; время срабатывания; время о... время отклика;
rs 232
    A specification of the electronic industries association defining a standard serial data interface. a standard interface between a computer input/output port and a peripheral device.
rs 422
    A protocol similar to rs 232 which makes use of differential transmission to provide high speed data transmission over significantly longer distances.
rs 485
    A protocol similar to rs 232 which permits data interchange on multi-drop networks of up to 32 nodes using a single twisted pair cable. in order for this protocol to be used, each device on a netw...
scattering coefficient
    A measure of the attenuation due to scattering of light as it traverses a medium containing scattering particles.
serial output
    A digital data output in which the characters are sent one bit at a time over a single communication path.
sling psychrometer
  1. Psychrometer to which a small chain or rotary handle is attached so that the observer can rotate the instrument rapidly to properly ventilate the thermometer bulbs.

  2. A psychrometer t... psicrómetro giratorio .;
snow bridging
    An effect noticed primarily in wet snow conditions when snow clings to the sides of a precipitation gage and gradually accumulates until the gage orifice is capped with accumulated snow. this effe...
solid state
  1. A device which is able to control current without the use of moving parts or vacuum tubes.

  2. In metamorphism, indicates the change of mineral identity without melting. all ion migrati...
splayed tail
    A type of wind vane having a split or v-shaped tail. the apex orients itself into the direction of the wind.
switching power supply
    A power supply which achieves its output regulation by means of one or more active power handling devices which are alternately placed in the "off" or "on" states. it is more efficient than linear...
synchro
  1. A motor like device containing a rotor and a stator and capable of converting an angular position into an electrical signal, or an electrical signal into an angular position. when several sync...
temperature coefficient
    A factor relating the response characteristics of a device with changes in the ambient temperature.
thermograph
  1. Thermometer used to give a graphic record of the time variations of temperature.

  2. A device that shows patterns of heat radiated from a body, used in diagnosis

  3. Термограф, р... термограф;
thermostat
  1. A device used to switch electrical current at a selectable set-point temperature.

  2. A device which relegates the temperature of a room or building by switching heating or cooling equi... thermo; термостат термореле,; селектор,температурный; термостат;
time constant
    The time required for an instrument to register 63.2% of an instantaneous change in the measured parameter.
постоянная времени;
totalizing anemometer
    Anemometer in which the sensor rotation is transmitted to a mechanical counter which directly integrates the air movement past the instrument.
townsend support
    A common support used to fixture maximum and minimum thermometers. it is designed to hold the thermometers at the proper angles for measuring, and it also simplifies resetting of the thermometer m...
transmissivity
  1. A measure of luminous flux remaining in a light beam after it has passed through a specified distance of the atmosphere.

  2. The capacity of a material to transmit radiant energy.
transmissometer
    An instrument which measures the transmissivity of the atmosphere between two points for the determination of visual range.
трансмиссометр;
virtual temperature
    Temperature to which absolutely dry air would have to be brought in order for it to have the density as moist air considered at the same pressure.
visibility sensor
    General term for an instrument used to make direct measurements of visual range or measurements of the physical characteristics of the atmosphere which determine the visual range.