16 , 2024

Translating UMI-CMS based website

19 , 2024

Translations in furniture production

07 , 2024

Ghostwriting vs. Copywriting

30 , 2024

Preparing a scientific article for publication in an electronic (online) journal

20 , 2023

Translation and editing of drawings in CAD systems

10 , 2023

About automatic speech recognition

30 , 2023

Translation services for tunneling shields and tunnel construction technologies


  1. Aquatint is an etching process concerned with areas of tone rather than line. for this technique, the plate is covered with a ground or resin that is granular rather than solid (as in etching)... aguatinta;
artists proofs
    Artists proofs. formerly, when an artist was commissioned to execute a print, he was provided with lodging and living expenses, a printing studio and workmen, supplies and paper. the artist was g...
bon a tirer proof.
    Bon a tirer proof. literally, the okay-to-print proof. if the artist is not printing his own edition, the bon a tirer (sometimes abbreviated as b.a.t.) is the final trial proof, the one that the...
cancelling plates.
    Cancelling plates. in modern terms, after a limited edition of a print is completed, the plate or stone or block may be erased or defaced with lines or holes to discourage further printing. this e...
chiaroscuro woodcuts
    Chiaroscuro woodcuts involve the use of several blocks, often one for each color to be used and sometimes one to outline the composition of the image. the print is made by printing a sheet of pape...
    Cliche-verre, or glass print, is different from every other print technique in that the image on the paper is not produced with ink but with light-sensitive chemicals. the basic cliche-verre is ma...
    Collagraph takes its name from the french colle, meaning glue, and the greek graphos, meaning drawing. an image is composed from a variety of textured materials glued onto a solid base such as car...
color woodcuts
    Color woodcuts, a product of the nineteenth century in the west, use the same techniques as chiaroscuro but often carried to enormous complexity of multiple blocks and over-lapping, and they commo...
    A counterproof is made by placing a dampened sheet of paper on top of a pastel or charcoal drawing and applying pressure to transfer the image to the dampened paper.
digital prints
    Digital prints. artists who create their works digitally or use digital manipulation in order to create a print may print them from a computer using a large-scale ink jet printer. the ink is dispe...
    Drypoint prints are created by scratching a drawing into a metal plate with a needle or other sharp tool. this technique allows the greatest freedom of line, from the most delicate hairline to the...
  1. Engraving is a process in which a plate is marked or incised with a tool called a burin. a burn works on a copper plate like a plow on a field. as it is moved across the plate, copper shavings... grabado;
hors commerce proof
    Hors commerce proof. impressions annotated h.c. are supposedly not for sale. these proofs started to appear on the market as extensions of editions being printed in the late 1960s. they may d...
    Linocuts are printed from a linoleum block, usually backed with wood for reinforcement. the linoleum is handled in exactly the same way as a wood block but, since it does not have a wood grain, th...
    Lithography. invented in 1798, lithography is perhaps best known from the prints of the 1890s by artists like bonnard and toulouse-lautrec. the process is based on the mutual antipathy of oil and ...
  1. Mezzotint is a technique of engraving areas of tone rather than lines. in this method, the entire surface of the plate is roughed by a spiked tool called a rocker so that, if inked, at that po... mediatinta .; mezzotinta .;
    A monoprint is made by taking an already etched and inked plate and adding to the composition by manipulating additional ink on the surface of the plate. this produces an impression different in a...
    Monotype/monoprint. as their names imply, monotypes and monoprints (the words are often used interchangeably but shouldnt be) are prints that have an edition of one, though sometimes a second, we...
  1. Numbering. the numbering of individual impressions of prints can be found as early as the late nineteenth century. however, it did not become standard practice until the mid 1960s. today, all... ; ;
    A photo-lithograph is generally a reproduction and not an original print. color lithographs are made through the use of several stones or plates to separate the colors and printing the same sheet ...
    Pochoir is a direct method of hand coloring through a stencil. the stencil itself is usually knife cut from thin-coated paper, paperboard, plastic or metal and the ink or paint is applied with a b...
posthumous edition
    Posthumous edition. this one is printed from a matrix after the death of the artist. it has usually been authorized by the artists heirs or is the product of a publisher who previously purchased ...
printers proof
    Printers proof. a complimentary proof given to the printer. there can be from one to several of these proofs, depending upon the number of printers involved and the generosity of the artist.
    Restrikes. theoretically, these are any printings made after the first edition. a more useful definition would define restrikes as later impressions not authorized by the author or his heirs, as o...
    Screenprinting (serigraphy, silk screen) is a versatile printing process based on the stencil principle. it was made famous in the 1960s when artists such as andy warhol exploited its bold, commer...
second edition
    Second edition. a second edition is a later printing, usually authorized by the artist or by his heirs, from the original matrix, after an edition of declared number has already been printed. it s...
    Signatures. the very earliest prints were not signed at all, although by the later part of the fifteenth century many artists indicated their authorship of a print by incorporating a signature or ...
spitbite aquatint
    Spitbite aquatint involves painting strong acid directly onto the aquatint ground of a prepared plate. depending upon the time the acid is left on the plate, light to dark tones can be achieved. t...
trial proof
    Trial proof. an impression pulled before the edition to see what the print looks like at that stage of development, after which the artist may go back to the matrix and change it. there can be any...
white line woodcut.
    White line woodcut. this is a technique developed in america that allows a color woodcut print to be produced from a single block. the outline of the design is cut away (so that it will not print)...
wood engravings
    Wood engravings are made from the end-grain surface of very hard wood, usually boxwood, as opposed to woodcuts, which are made from side-grain planks of wood neither so hard nor so expensive. rath...
  1. Woodcut is the earliest and most enduring, in that it is still practiced, of all print techniques. while woodcuts were first seen in ninth-century china, western artists have made woodcut prin...
    The term refers to paper, which is free from the damaging level of low ph. most of the papers used in printmaking are normally acid-free.
a la poupée
    This is an intaglio method for inking many colors directly on a single plate, using small cotton dabbers called dollies.
antique print:
    Any print that is published or printed before 1900 is considered as antique print. the cut-off date is not fixed, so many original prints created before world war ii is considered as antique.
blind stamp:
    A blind stamp also known as chop mark, is a brocaded seal on a printfor the purpose ofdifferentiatingby the publisher, the artist, a collector, or an institution.
    A roller used to apply ink on a block or plate. this is made up of gelatin compound or a hard rubber.
rodillo .;
    The term is used to assure that a plate, or any other matrix from which limited edition is printed, can no longer be used. sometimes the image is defaced or the plate is cut up and recycled.
chine collé:
    Chine collé is a method of printing an image on a thin sheet of paper mounted on a backing sheet during a single pass through the press.
    A method in which large number of lithographic stones are used to perform complex color separation.
  1. An instrument used for grinding pigments on an etching plate. the bottom of the dabber is covered with thick pad of wool surrounded by leather.

  2. A soft brush used to apply varnishes....
    Drawing or painting directly on the plates creates a rough burr along the furrow. the result of the dry point is the soft lines with an engraving.
dutch mordant
    This is used as an alternative to nitric acid in etching. this is a mixture of potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid.
    An edition is the number of printsproduced from one plate, at the same time. this may be limited edition, or an open edition.
    Etching is a process forproducing a design in a plate to prepare it for intaglio printing. the process is repeated several times to prepare the plate for artistic control.
flat bed
    The term used in print making to identify techniques such as lithography and serigraphy.
flock print
    In this method, the block is surfaced with glue and finely chopped textile material is sprinkled on the glue. the result of this method is a soft print with indistinct outlines.
    The term is used to define the images created with high quality inks, from high resolution digital scans. this type of printing gives greater color accuracy than other types of replication.
  1. This is an electrotype method in which a copy of an engraved plate is used for letterpress printing.

linoleum cut
    This technique is similar to wood cut, but linoleum is used instead of wood.
    In this type of printing method, indirect image is transferred from photochemical plates. the plate transfers ink to a cylinder, which offsets theink on the paper.
    Plate- mark is an impression created on the paper by the plate, when the paper passes through the press.
reduction printing
    This type of printing is made for registration purposes. here, largest color areas are printed first, followed by the next size in sequence.
positivado por reducción .; tiraje por reducción .;
    This is a stencil printing process in which the paint is forced through the silk screen on to the textile or paper.
  1. The term refers to the left-hand page in a book. in prints, it refers to the backside of the print.

  2. The left hand page on a spread. the right page is called recto.

  3. ...
  1. A watermark is a pattern embossed in a piece of paper for identifying paper and papermaker.

  2. Traditionally, a watermark is an image or icon that is embedded into paper for security p...
    This is alithograph made on a zinc plate. the term is also used to define a photo etched print.

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