Глоссарий

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Стилистический глоссарий

features of newspaper style
    - alleges and claims, restrictions of time and space - special political and economic terms, non-term political vocabulary, newspaper cliches, abbreviations, neologisms; - syntactic constructions,...
features of publicist style
    - combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal; - features, common with the style of scientific prose and emotive prose; - coherent and logical syntactical structure, expanded system ...
colloquial words
    - employed in non-official everyday communication - mark the message as informal, non-official, conversational - their use is associated with the oral form of communication "dad", "kid", "crony", ...
periodic sentences
    - open with subordinate clauses, absolute and participial constructions, the main clause being withheld until the end - are known for their emphasis and are used mainly in creative prose such bein...
loose structure
    - opens with the main clause, which is followed by dependent units; - less emphatic and is highly characteristic of informal writing and conversation;
high-flown words
    - serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose; - mainly observed in the written form; - contribute to the me...
literary words
    - serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose; - mainly observed in the written form; - contribute to the me...
bookish words
    - serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose; - mainly observed in the written form; - contribute to the me...
learned words
    - serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose; - mainly observed in the written form; - contribute to the me...
features of official style
    - special system of cliches, terms and set expressions; conventionality of expression; - each of subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions; - the encoded chara...
balanced sentences
    - subordinate-main-subordinate similar structuring of the beginning of the sentence and its end; - known for stressing the logic and reasoning of the content and thus preferred in publicist writin...
features of belles-lettres style
    - use of words in contextual and very often in more than one dictionary meaning, or at least greatly influenced by the lexical environment. - a vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser...
logical comparison
    (логическое) сопоставление a) an ordinary comparison of two objects belonging to the same classes (v.a.k.) she is like her mother. b) weighing two objects belonging to one class of things with the...
indirect onomatopoeia
    A combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense ("echo - writing") (i.r.g.) "and the silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain"(e....
prolonged metaphor
    A group (cluster) of metaphor s, each supplying another feature of the described phenomenon to present an elaborated image (v.a.k.)
sustained metaphor
    A group (cluster) of metaphor s, each supplying another feature of the described phenomenon to present an elaborated image (v.a.k.)
cacophony
    A sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing (v.a.k.) nor soul helps flesh now//more than flesh helps soul. (r.browning) see: alliteration , assonance
cluster sds
    A small group (cluster) of sds, which - operate on the same linguistic mechanism: namely, one word-form is deliberately used in two meanings; - have humorous effect, and - include: pun or paronoma...
detached construction
    A stylistic device based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation (intonation) (v.a.k.) i have to beg you nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident. (i...
logical climax
    A three-step climax (the most widely spread model), in which intensification of logical importance, of emotion or quantity (size, dimensions) is gradually rising step by step (v.a.k.) •• is based ...
emotive climax
    A two-step climax , in which the second part repeats the first one and is further strengthened by an intensifier (v.a.k.) •• is based on the relative emotional tension produced by words with emoti...
verbal irony
    A type of irony when it is possible to indicate the exact word whose contextual meaning diametrically opposes its dictionary meaning, in whose meaning we can trace the contradiction between the sa...
individual style
    A unique combination of language units, expressive means and stylistic device s peculiar to a given writer, which makes that writer`s works or even utterances easily recognisable (i.r.g.) see: sty...
semantically false chains
    A variation of zeugma when the number of homogeneous members, semantically disconnected, but attached to the same verb, increases (v.a.k.) a governess wanted. must possess knowledge of romanian, r...
gap-sentence link
    A way of connecting two sentences seemingly unconnected and leaving it to the reader`s perspicacity to grasp the idea implied, but not worded she and that fellow ought to be the sufferers, and the...
sustained irony
    A) a type of irony , intuitively feeling the reversal of the evaluation, formed by the contradiction of the speaker`s (writer`s) considerations and the generally accepted moral and ethical codes; ...
quantitative climax
    An evident increase in the volume of the corresponding concepts (i.r.g.) they looked at hundreds of houses; they climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected innumerable kitchens. (s.maugham) littl...
lexico-syntactical stylistic devices
    Certain structures, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence members but also on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance (v.a.k.) - include: antithesis , climax , anticli...
lexico-syntactical sds
    Certain structures, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence members but also on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance (v.a.k.) - include: antithesis , climax , anticli...
apokoinu
    Constructions the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective - create a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that - the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneou...
epic simile
    Extended simile , sustained expression of likeness see: simile
homeric simile
    Extended simile , sustained expression of likeness see: simile
occasional words
    Extension of the normative valency which results in the formation of new words. an effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information. they are not neologisms in the true...
nonce-words
    Extension of the normative valency which results in the formation of new words. an effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information. they are not neologisms in the true...
full rhyme
    Identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable (might - right, needless - heedless)
syntactical level
    Include syntactical stylistic devices , repetition , sentence structure , types of connection , arrangement of sentence members, completeness of sentence structure the most conspicuous places in t...
set expressions
    Include: cliches, proverbs and sayings, epigram s, quotations, allusion s
lexical stylistic devices
    Include: metaphor , personification ; metonymy , synecdoche ; cluster sds ; play on words, irony , epithet , hyperbole , understatement , oxymoron see: set expressions , cluster sds , syntactical ...
lexical sds
    Include: metaphor , personification ; metonymy , synecdoche ; cluster sds ; play on words, irony , epithet , hyperbole , understatement , oxymoron see: set expressions , cluster sds , syntactical ...
types of connection
    Include: polysyndeton , asyndeton , attachment , gap-sentence link see: enumeration , completeness of sentence structure
syntactical stylistic devices
    Include: sentence length, one-word sentences , punctuation , rhetorical question , parallel construction , chiasmus , inversion , suspense , detachment , ellipsis , one-member sentences, apokoinu ...
syntactical sds
    Include: sentence length, one-word sentences , punctuation , rhetorical question , parallel construction , chiasmus , inversion , suspense , detachment , ellipsis , one-member sentences, apokoinu ...
completeness of sentence structure
    Includes: ellipsis , apokoinu constructions , break-in-the-narrative or aposiopesis see: types of connection , syntactical sds
lexical level
    Includes: literary words , neutral words , colloquial words see: trope ; phono-graphical level , syntactical level ; stylistics
stratum of words
    Includes: literary words , neutral words , colloquial words see: trope ; phono-graphical level , syntactical level ; stylistics
word-stock
    Includes: literary words , neutral words , colloquial words see: trope ; phono-graphical level , syntactical level ; stylistics
phono-graphical level
    Includes: onomatopoeia , alliteration , assonance , graphon see: morphological level , stylistics