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Глоссарий по истории гражданской войны в США (английский)

    An american colonist who supported the british in the american revolution.
    A person who brought 50 settlers to new netherland and in return received a large land grant and other special privileges.
royal colony
    A colony ruled by governors appointed by a king.
    A colonial region that ran along the appalachian mountains through the far western part of the new england, middle, and southern colonies.
subsistence farm
    A farm that produces enough food for the family with a small additional amount for trade.
triangular trade
  1. The transatlantic system of trade in which goods, including slaves, were exchanged between africa, england, europe, the west indies, and the colonies in north america.

  2. There were ac...
navigation acts
  1. A series of laws passed by parliament, beginning in 1651, to ensure that england made money from its colonies’ trade.

  2. Various statutes by which the legislature of great britain has ...
cash crop
  1. A crop grown by a farmer to be sold for money rather than for personal use.

  2. Товарная культура (с/х)
товарная культура; товарная часть урожая; сельскохозяйственная;
  1. A mill in which grain is ground to produce flour or meal.

  2. A mill for grinding grain; in earlier times powered by the wind, a stream, river, or by tidal water.
  1. A variety of people.

  2. The nonsimultaneous occurrence of maximum demands on any given part of a system. diversity factor 1. in an electric wiring system, the ratio of the sum of the i... разнообразие; многообразие; разновидность; разнообразие;; разнесение; разновременность;;
  1. A plant grown in the southern colonies that yields a deep blue dye.

  2. Originally, a natural blue vat dye extracted from plants, especially the indigofera tinctoria plant. most indigo ...
fall line
    The point at which a waterfall prevents large boats from moving farther upriver.
линия падения;
    A large group of families that claim a common ancestor.
great awakening
    A revival of religious feeling in the american colonies during the 1730s and 1740s.
  1. An 18th-century movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method to obtain knowledge.

  2. An enhancement made to the operating system to help reduce the cost of cert...
magna carta
    “great charter;” a document guaranteeing basic political rights in england, approved by king john in 1215.
english bill of rights
    An agreement signed by william and mary to respect the rights of english citizens and of parliament, including the right to free elections.
glorious revolution
    The overthrow of english king james ii in 1688 and his replacement by william and mary.
french and indian war
    A conflict in north america from 1754 to 1763 that was part of a worldwide struggle between france and britain; britain defeated france and gained french canada.
albany plan of union
    The first formal proposal to unite the american colonies, put forth by benjamin franklin.
treaty of paris
    The 1763 treaty that ended the french and indian war; britain gave up all of north america east of the mississippi river.
stamp act
    A 1765 law passed by parliament that required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing a tax had been paid.
sugar act
    A law passed by parliament in 1764 that placed a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to the colonies; also called for harsh punishment of smugglers.
quartering act
    A law passed by parliament in 1765 that required the colonies to house and supply british soldiers.
sons of liberty
    A group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose british policies at the time of the american revolution.
    A refusal to buy certain goods.
committee of correspondence
    A group of people in the colonies who exchanged letters on colonial affairs.
boston tea party
    The dumping of 342 chests of tea into boston harbor by colonists in 1773 to protest the tea act.
  1. A member of the colonial militia who was trained to respond “at a minute’s warning.”

  2. Человек, всегда готовый к действию, активный деятель
intolerable acts
    A series of laws enacted by parliament in 1774 to punish massachusetts colonists for the boston tea party.
first continental congress
    A meeting of delegates in 1774 from all the colonies except georgia to uphold colonial rights.
lexington and concord
    Sites in massachusetts of the first battles of the american revolution.
continental army
    A colonial force authorized by the second continental congress in 1775, with george washington as its commanding general.
second continental congress
    A governing body whose delegates agreed, in may 1775, to form the continental army and to approve the declaration of independence.
declaration of independence
    The document, written in 1776, in which the colonies declared independence from britain.
  1. A meeting.

  2. Встреча; сбор; мес- то сбора (самолетов)

  3. The port or place of destination where the several ships of a fleet are appointed to join company.
battles of saratoga
    A series of conflicts between british soldiers and the continental army in 1777 that proved to be a turning point in the revolutionary war.
  1. A privately owned ship that has government permission during wartime to attack an enemy’s merchant ships.

  2. A privately owned ship authorised by a national power (by means of a #lette...
    A soldier who weakens the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks.
    A person morally opposed to war.
battle of yorktown
    The last major battle of the revolutionary war, which resulted in the surrender of british forces in 1781.
treaty of paris of 1783
    The treaty that ended the revolutionary war, confirming the independence of the united states and setting the boundaries of the new nation.
wilderness road
    The trail into kentucky that woodsman daniel boone helped to build.
articles of confederation
    A document, adopted by the continental congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new united states.
land ordinance of 1785
    A law that established a plan for surveying and selling the federally owned lands west of the appalachian mountains.
northwest ordinance
    It described how the northwest territory was to be governed and set conditions for settlement and settlers’ rights.
northwest territory
    Territory covered by the land ordinance of 1785, which included land that formed the states of ohio, indiana, michigan, illinois, wisconsin, and part of minnesota.
constitutional convention
    A meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the articles of confederation; resulted in the drafting of the constitution.
new jersey plan
    A plan of government proposed at the constitutional convention in 1787 that called for a one-house legislature in which each state would have one vote.
virginia plan
    A plan proposed by edmund randolph, a delegate to the constitutional convention in 1787, that proposed a government with three branches and a two-house legislature in which representation would be...
three-fifths compromise
    The constitutional convention’s agreement to count three-fifths of a state’s slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation.
great compromise
    The constitutional convention’s agreement to establish a two-house national legislature, with all states having equal representation in one house and each state having representation based on its ...
    A person who opposed the ratification of the u.s. constitution.
    Supporters of the constitution.
federalist papers
    A series of essays defending and explaining the constitution.
bill of rights
    The first ten amendments to the u.s. constitution, added in 1791, and consisting of a formal list of citizens’ rights and freedoms.
popular sovereignty
    A government in which the people rule
separation of powers
    The division of basic government roles into branches.
individual right
    A personal liberty and privilege guaranteed to u.s. citizens by the bill of rights.
limited government
    The principle that requires all u.s. citizens, including government leaders, to obey the law.
    The process of accusing a public official of wrongdoing.
  1. The minimum number of members that must be present for official business to take place.

  2. For a failover cluster, the number of elements that must be online for a given cluster to con... кворум;
  1. Public funds set aside for a specific purpose.

  2. A distribution of net income to various accounts or entities.
bill of attainder
    A law that condemns a person without a trial in court.
natural-born citizen
    A citizen born in the united states or a commonwealth of the united states or to parents who are u.s. citizens living outside the country.
  1. A delay or cancellation of punishment.

  2. Отсрочка приведения в исполнение (смертного) приговора rep – ret
inferior court
    A court with less authority than the supreme court.
    Having power to review court decisions.
compulsory process
    A required procedure.
due process of law
  1. Fair treatment under the law.

  2. Установленный законом процесс

  3. Установленный законом порядок
установленный законом процесс;
    A scientist who studies the human past by examining the things people left behind.
    The practice of breeding plants or taming animals to meet human needs.
    A form of culture characterized by city trade centers, specialized workers, organized forms of government and religion, systems of record keeping, and advanced tools.
treaty of greenville
    A 1795 agreement in which 12 native american tribes surrendered much of present-day ohio and indiana to the u.s. government.
whiskey rebellion
    A 1794 protest against the government’s tax on whiskey, which was valuable to the livelihood of backcountry farmers.
french revolution
    In 1789, the french launched a movement for liberty and equality.
jay’s treaty
    The agreement that ended dispute over american shipping during the french revolution.

Глоссарий по истории гражданской войны в США (английский)

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