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Toxic Substances Glossary

acute exposure
    Contact with a substance that occurs once or for only a short time (up to 14 days) [compare with intermediate duration exposure and chronic exposure].
additive effect
    A biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that equals the sum of responses of all the individual substances added together [compare with antagonistic effect and synergistic effect].
adverse health effect
    A change in body function or cell structure that might lead to disease or health problems
    Requiring oxygen [compare with anaerobic].
  1. Requiring the absence of oxygen [compare with aerobic].

  2. In adhesives, a bonding method that uses its own chemical reaction to complete the adhesion
анаэробный; (биол;
analytic epidemiologic study
    A study that evaluates the association between exposure to hazardous substances and disease by testing scientific hypotheses.
antagonistic effect
  1. A biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that is less than would be expected if the known effects of the individual substances were added together [compare with additive effect a... антагонистский эффект;
background level
    An average or expected amount of a substance or radioactive material in a specific environment, or typical amounts of substances that occur naturally in an environment.
фоновый уровень;
biologic indicators of exposure study
    A study that uses (a) biomedical testing or (b) the measurement of a substance [an analyte], its metabolite, or another marker of exposure in human body fluids or tissues to confirm human exposure...
biologic monitoring
    Measuring hazardous substances in biologic materials (such as blood, hair, urine, or breath) to determine whether exposure has occurred. a blood test for lead is an example of biologic monitoring....
biologic uptake
    The transfer of substances from the environment to plants, animals, and humans.
biomedical testing
    Testing of persons to find out whether a change in a body function might have occurred because of exposure to a hazardous substance.
body burden
    The total amount of a substance in the body. some substances build up in the body because they are stored in fat or bone or because they leave the body very slowly.
тела нагрузка;
cancer risk
    A theoretical risk for getting cancer if exposed to a substance every day for 70 years (a lifetime exposure). the true risk might be lower.
cas registry number
    A unique number assigned to a substance or mixture by the american chemical society abstracts service [external link].
case study
  1. A medical or epidemiologic evaluation of one person or a small group of people to gather information about specific health conditions and past exposures.

  2. Изучение отдельного случая,... estudio de caso;
case-control study
  1. A study that compares exposures of people who have a disease or condition (cases) with people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). exposures that are more common among the case...
  1. Occurring over a long time [compare with acute].

  2. Crónico
crónico (a); хронический;
cluster investigation
    A review of an unusual number, real or perceived, of health events (for example, reports of cancer) grouped together in time and location. cluster investigations are designed to confirm case repor... investigación de sectores;
community assistance panel
    community assistance panel (cap)
      A group of people from a community and from health and environmental agencies who work with atsdr to resolve issues and problems related to hazardous substances in the community. cap members work ...
    comparison value (cv)
      Calculated concentration of a substance in air, water, food, or soil that is unlikely to cause harmful (adverse) health effects in exposed people. the cv is used as a screening level during the pu...
    completed exposure pathway
      exposure pathway;
      delayed health effect
        A disease or an injury that happens as a result of exposures that might have occurred in the past.
        Referring to the skin. for example, dermal absorption means passing through the skin.
      dermal contact
        Contact with (touching) the skin [see route of exposure].
      descriptive epidemiology
      1. The study of the amount and distribution of a disease in a specified population by person, place, and time.

      2. Описательная эпидемиология раздел эпидемиологии, связанный со сбором и ан...
      disease registry
        A system of ongoing registration of all cases of a particular disease or health condition in a defined population.
      registro de enfermedades; регистр;
      dose (for chemicals that are not radioactive)
        The amount of a substance to which a person is exposed over some time period. dose is a measurement of exposure. dose is often expressed as milligram (amount) per kilogram (a measure of body weigh...
      dose (for radioactive chemicals)
        The radiation dose is the amount of energy from radiation that is actually absorbed by the body. this is not the same as measurements of the amount of radiation in the environment.
      dose-response relationship
        The relationship between the amount of exposure [dose] to a substance and the resulting changes in body function or health (response).
      environmental media
        Soil, water, air, biota (plants and animals), or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.
      environmental media and transport mechanism
        Environmental media include water, air, soil, and biota (plants and animals). transport mechanisms move contaminants from the source to points where human exposure can occur. the environmental med...
      epidemiologic surveillance
        Эпидемиологический надзор; эпиднадзор
      public health surveillance;
      1. The study of the distribution and determinants of disease or health status in a population; the study of the occurrence and causes of health effects in humans.

      2. The study of diseases... epidemiología; эпидемиология; эпидемиология «сношенных сапог»;
      exposure assessment
        The process of finding out how people come into contact with a hazardous substance, how often and for how long they are in contact with the substance, and how much of the substance they are in con... evaluación de exposición; оценка воздействия;
      exposure investigation
        The collection and analysis of site-specific information and biologic tests (when appropriate) to determine whether people have been exposed to hazardous substances.
      exposure pathway
        The route a substance takes from its source (where it began) to its end point (where it ends), and how people can come into contact with (or get exposed to) it. an exposure pathway has five parts:... completed exposure pathway;
      exposure registry
        A system of ongoing followup of people who have had documented environmental exposures.
      exposure-dose reconstruction
        A method of estimating the amount of people`s past exposure to hazardous substances. computer and approximation methods are used when past information is limited, not available, or missing.
      geographic information system (gis)
        A mapping system that uses computers to collect, store, manipulate, analyze, and display data. for example, gis can show the concentration of a contaminant within a community in relation to points... географическая информационная система, гис;
      grand rounds
        Training sessions for physicians and other health care providers about health topics.
      hazardous substance release and health effects database (hazdat)
        The scientific and administrative database system developed by atsdr to manage data collection, retrieval, and analysis of site-specific information on hazardous substances, community health conce...
      hazardous waste
      1. Potentially harmful substances that have been released or discarded into the environment.

      2. Опасные отходы отходы, обладающие опасными свойствами или содержащие возбудителей инфекцион...
      health consultation
        A review of available information or collection of new data to respond to a specific health question or request for information about a potential environmental hazard. health consultations are foc...
      health investigation
        The collection and evaluation of information about the health of community residents. this information is used to describe or count the occurrence of a disease, symptom, or clinical measure and to... investigación de salud;
      health promotion
      1. The process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health.

      2. The act of improving the health of a particular community or of the public generally, e.g. usi... здоровья продвижение;
      health statistics review
        The analysis of existing health information (i.e., from death certificates, birth defects registries, and cancer registries) to determine if there is excess disease in a specific population, geogr...