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Глоссарий терминов по видеокамерам

ae (auto exposure)
    Combined use of agc and iris motor control allows shooting in a broad range of lighting conditions. agc amplifies the video signal in low light conditions, iris reduces it in high light conditions...
af (autofocus)
    Available in cameras equipped with motorized focus, this feature provides automatic adjustment of the focus. af operates by varying the focus to maximize the high frequency content of the central ...
asynchronous transmission mode
    Ieee 1394 data transmission mode without a guaranteed data delivery time. used in ieee 1394 cameras for control functions and reports.
atw (auto tracking white balance)
    In atw mode, white balance is continuously being adjusted according to the color temperature of the scene illumination.
bayonet mount
    Type of camera mount in which there is 38 mm or 48 mm clearance between the lens rear mounting surface and the camera’s ccd.
black stretch / black compress control
    A function of digital signal processing technology that enables the contrast of the black area of an image to be variable adjusted. the black stretch function emphasizes contrast in the dark areas...
ccd iris
    Special operating mode of the electronic shutter of a ccd camera. the shutter timing is automatically adjusted to maintain the same video output level, irrespective of the scene illumination. can ...
ccu (camera control unit)
    The ccu provides a means of controlling a remote camera. so that the remote camera can be as small and light as possible, the ccu also includes all electronic circuits that do not have to be fitte...
chu (camera head unit)
    In a remote head camera system, the chu is a small unit that only includes the sensor, its optical interface, the cable coupling to a ccu and the minimum amount of electronic circuitry.
donpisha
    Means immediate in japanese. ccd sensor shuttering technology for asynchronous shooting of fast moving objects without a time delay.
dsp (digital signal processing)
    Inside a camera, sensor signals must be processed in several steps before they can be displayed / transmitted. typical processing steps are amplification, gamma correction, black level correction,...
dynalatitude process
    A unique feature function available when using digital signal processing (dsp) technology. it manages the contrast of each pixel according to a histogram of video signal level distribution in orde...
e-donpisha
    Enhanced asynchronous shutter. available with external and internal synchronization modes. the camera ccd starts to accumulate electrons on receipt of an external trigger pulse. shutter speed is s...
e-donpisha - ii
    Asynchronous shutter mode. available in external sync mode only. timing of accumulation and shutter speed are controlled by the external trigger signal. shutter speed is controlled by the width of...
eia (electronics industries association)
    B/w video standard with 525 lines / frame, 2 interlaced fields / frame, 30 frames / second. monochrome version of ntsc video signal. also referred to as rs-170. glossary of camera terminology glos...
exwave had technology
    Technology with a nearly gapless ocl (on-chip-lens) located over each pixel of the ccd resulting in more than twice the sensitivity and 1/50 the smear compared to hyper had technology. f stop, f n...
field / frame integration
    Two different pixel readout techniques in ccds designed for interlaced output. refers to the total integration time, field duration (16.6 ms ntsc/eia or 20 ms pal/ccir) or frame duration (33.3 ms ...
had (hole accumulated diode)
    Ccd technology with improved performance in spectral response, vertical smear and sensitivity. the had sensor also introduced a higher pixel count and electronic shuttering capability.
hd (horizontal drive)
    Signal used to synchronize the line scan rate of the camera to an external source. mostly used in b/w applications together with vd.
high rate scanning
    Capability of a camera to output less than its maximum number of horizontal lines, but at a higher rate. unlike partial scanning, the lines output in high rate scanning are symmetrical about the o...
hyper had
    A derivative of the had sensor that incorporates microscopic lenses mounted over each sensing pixel. sensors have no perceptible smear and are nearly twice as sensitive as had sensors.
icr (ir cut removable)
    This function is useful in low light environments. with the ir cut filter removed, the sensitivity of the camera to ir illumination is increased. ieee 1394 a digital networked serial interface for...
interval af
    Af (auto focus) mode is periodically switched on, then off (fixed focus). the duration of the on and off intervals is separately adjustable.
isochronous transmission mode
    Ieee 1394 data transmission mode featuring guaranteed transmission timing and bandwidth. appropriate for just-in-time transmission of video and audio and computer data.
it (interline transfer)
    In it ccd technology, the charges on exposed pixels are transferred to light-shielded vertical readout zones embedded in the sensitive area. it devices are simpler to manufacture and are therefore...
long-term integration
    Special camera mode similar to the ‘b’ setting of a photographic camera shutter. the ccd integrates over a long (userdefined) period, providing very high sensitivity. object must be stationary, ex...
lux (lux)
    The si measurement of light intensity taken at the surface which the light source is illuminating. the measure of the total lumens falling upon a unit of area. 1 lumen per square meter. one foot-c...
md (motion detector)
    Camera feature where a reference field is compared with current fields. if a difference is detected, the camera outputs a pulse. an ideal feature for security application.
mod (minimum object distance)
    A lens parameter that defines the minimum distance from a camera lens to the point where an object can still be in focus.
mtf (modulation transfer function)
    Defines the resolution capability of a lens. most lenses exhibit their best mtf when operated in the middle of their iris aperture range.
nd filter (neutral density filter)
    A grey filter added in front of a lens to reduce the amount of incoming light into the camera lens. it has no influence on color.
nf mount
    Type of camera mount in which there is 12 mm clearance between the lens rear mounting surface and the camera’s ccd.
ntsc (national television system committee)
    Color video standard, used mainly in the united states and japan. ntsc uses 525 scanning lines per picture, 30 pictures (frames) per second, each frame is made up of two sequential fields containi...
one-push af (one-push auto focus)
    Focus hold mode that can be automatically readjusted as required by the user (one-push af trigger) assuming that the required subject is within the focusing limits of the camera lens. glossary
one-push wb (one-push white balance)
    Fixed white balance mode that can be automatically readjusted as required by the user (one-push wb trigger), assuming that a white object, in suitable lighting conditions and occupying more than h...
partial enhance
    An advanced function of the digital signal processing (dsp) technology that allows a particular color to be selected and its hue, saturation and detail altered. this function gives the subject a p...
powerhad
    Is further improvement of the hyper had ccd technology, where the microscopic lenses focus more light onto the light sensors thus increased sensitivity and reduced smear.
restart / reset
    Special mode in which the ccd readout cycle is stopped and restarted in synchronization with an external event. in the stop mode, the ccd still accumulates picture information. rs-232c serial data...
s/n (signal to noise ratio)
    The ratio, usually expressed in db (decibels), between the normal signal output and the noise level within an electronic signal.
scalable scanning
    Capability of a camera to output a picture corresponding to an user defined sub-zone of the sensor. applied in ieee 1394 digital cameras featuring the format_7 output option (xcd-x700, xcd-sx900)....
screen mode
    Partial see-through mode on hmd allowing the user to view the surrounding environment by adjusting the transparency of the screen in the area only around the picture.
s-donpisha
    Asynchronous shutter mode used with external hd/vd sync. ccd starts to accumulate electrons when the external trigger pulse is received and stops when the vd pulse is received. therefore the accum...
slow shutter
    Shutter mode with an integration time longer than 1/50 s (pal) or 1/60 s (ntsc). like long-term integration, the slow shutter function increases camera sensitivity when shooting slow-moving or fix...
square pixel
    Used to qualify a ccd sensor where the centers of the pixels are equally spaced horizontally and vertically. pictures captured from this type of non-square pixel sensor need to be software correct...
strobe synchronization
    This function is designed to capture fast moving, full frame images by firing a strobe light in a dark lighting condition. the camera synchronizes the timing of the external trigger and can output...
sync (synchronization)
    When synchronized, the horizontal and vertical timing of a camera output are locked to an external signal coming, for example, from another camera. picture outputs from both sources are then preci...
u and v
    The names given to the two video color difference signals (r-y and b-y) in their coded form in the pal or ntsc color systems. see also y/r-y/b-y.
ultra mount
    Type of camera mount in which there is 6.7 mm clearance between the lens rear mounting surface and the camera’s ccd. vbs (video + burst + sync) the composite video signal, including color informat...
vd (vertical drive)
    Signal used to synchronize the field rate of a camera to an external source. mostly used in b/w together with hd (horizontal drive).
v-lock sync
    See genlock. vs (video + sync) the composite monochrome video signal commonly used as the genlock signal in b/w systems.
wb (white balance)
    In a color camera, white balance is the process of adjusting the values of its color differences signals so that a white object in a scene illuminated by a particular source of illumination is dis...
y/c (also called s-video)
    Separate signals for the luminance and chrominance parts of the video signal. allows higher picture resolution and suppresses cross color effects. connector is the 4-pin mini-din.
y/r-y/b-y
    Three signals, luminance (y) and two color difference signals r-y (red minus luminance) and b-y (blue minus luminance) which together carry the brightness and color information of color images . c...
zoom triggered af
    The camera is normally in fixed focus mode, but af (auto focus) is temporarily switched on each time the zoom ratio of the camera lens is changed.
a/d converter
    A device that converts analog information (a photograph or video frame) into a series of numbers that a computer can store and manipulate. all digicams use an a/d converter, the higher the bit rat...
aa filter
  1. Most digital slr cameras employ a low pass filter (lpf) or anti-aliasing (aa) filter in front of the imager to help eliminate color aliasing (moire) problems.

  2. – most digital slr’s h...
ac power
  1. Running your digicam off the wall outlet power rather than by battery power. usually means purchasing optional ac power adapter.

  2. – alternating current which is used to operate your ...
add-on lens
  1. Some lenses have filter threads on the front edge that allow you to mount an auxiliary wide angle or telephoto lens in addition to the standard lens.

  2. – some point and shoot digicams...
ae lock
  1. The ability to hold the current exposure settings and allow you to point the camera elsewhere before capturing the image. this is usually accomplished by halfpressing the shutter button and ke...
and vibrantly
    I.e. the xxxxx printer has a wide color gamut.
aperture priority ae
  1. Exposure is calculated based on the aperture value chosen by the photographer. this allows for depth of field (dof: range of focus) control large aperture = shallow dof and a small aperture = ...
artifact(ing)
    Misinterpreted information from a jpeg or compressed image. color faults or line faults that visibly impact the image negatively.
back lit
  1. The subject is heavily lit from behind which generally causes it to be underexposed unless you use critical spot metering.

  2. Meaning the subject is lit from behind which can cause und...
backlight
  1. The illumination for a color lcd display. early color lcd used high voltage fluorescent lamps, newer lcds now use white leds which are much more energy efficient.

  2. The illumination f...
blue tooth
    The new wireless standard for connecting cameras, pdas, laptops, computers and cell phones. uses very high frequency radio waves. devices when in-range (less than 30 feet) of each other easily est...
borderless
  1. Means a photo print with no border around it. old term for this was fullbleed printing.

  2. Quite simply, this means a printed photograph with no border around it.

  3. Без границ...
bracketing
  1. See exposure

  2. Photographers shooting tricky jobs may make safety exposures above and below the "right" one, generally at 1/2- or 2/3-stop intervals.

  3. Bracketing i...
bulb - this is a long time exposure setting
    Bulb this is a long time exposure setting shutter stays open for as long as you keep the shutter release button held down. time exposure mode. similar to bulb mode, only the photographer presses t...
burst mode
  1. The ability to rapidly capture images as long as the shutter button is held down.also called continuous frame capture.

  2. Also know as continuous mode or “auto wind” on older slr’s. ho... режим группового обмена; режим потокового обмена; пакетный режим; блочный режим;; форсированный режим;;
cd - compactdisc
    Cd compactdisc read only storage media capable of holding 650mb of digital data.
center-weighted
  1. A term used to describe an auto exposure system that uses the center portion of the image to adjust the overall exposure value. see also spot metering and matrix metering

  2. In a meter...
ciff
  1. Camera image file format, an agreed method of digicam image storage used by many camera makers.

  2. Camera image file format. this is an agreed type of image storage used by many camera...
cmos - complementary metal oxide semiconductor
    Cmos complementary metal oxide semiconductor another imaging system used by digicams. it is not as popular as ccd but the future promises us even better digicams based on cmos sensors due to the l...
color balance
  1. The accuracy with which the colors captured in the image match the original scene.

  2. The color balance of a film refers to the kind of light under which it will faithfully render colo...
color copier
    Color printing device using electrostatic and cmyk pigments.
color correction
    The process of correcting or enhancing the color of an image.
color depth
  1. Digital images can approximate color realism, but how they do so is referred to as color depth, pixel-depth, or bit depth. modern computer displays use 24bit true color. it`s called this becau...