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Telecommunications Glossary

access channels
    Dedicated channels giving nondiscriminatory access to a local cable system by the public, government agencies or educational institutions.
accunet switched digital services
    High-speed dial-up digital data services offered by at&t for full duplex digital transmission at speeds of 56, 64, 384 and 1536 kbps. uses include data, voice and video services.
acoustic coupler
  1. A device that allows a conventional telephone handset to feed its signal into a modem, as opposed to direct couplers, which feed the modulated/demodulated signal directly into the phone line.<...
acoustic echo canceller
    All speakerphones have some form of adaptive echo canceller that produces a synthetic replica of the potential echo to subtract from the transmit audio. most units have a center clipping echo supp...
acoustic echo return loss - aerl
    The minimum loss experienced by a sound in traveling from the loudspeaker to the microphone in a conference room. it is expressed in db or decibels. a 0 db loss corresponds to a perfectly reflecti...
acoustic echo return loss enhancement - aerle
    The maximum echo cancellation provided by the acoustic canceller. typical figures will vary from 6 to 18 db. the larger the number the better. it is important to note whether the figure is quoted ...
acoustic modem
  1. A modulator-demodulator unit that converts data signals to telephone tones and back again.

  2. Акустический модем
active satellite
    A satellite that transmits a signal, in contrast to a passive satellite that only reflects a signal. the signal received by the active satellite is usually amplified and translated to a different ...
ad hoc
  1. Teleconferencing technology and sites assembled for an event; equipment may be rented or permanently installed; sites are not always part of the network.

  2. Специальный; подходящий к д... для данного случая;
adpcm - adaptive differential pulse code modulation
    A method of compressing audio data by recording the differences between successive digital samples rather than full value of the samples. there are many different types of adpcm standards; this re...
adsl - asymmetric digital subscriber loop
    Adsl uses a regular phone line (twisted pair) without a dial tone (a dry pair) to allow transfer speeds of up to 7mb downstream with slower speeds going back up (faster than a t1). the telcos are ...
affiliate network
    Group with their own satellite receive equipment; routinely receive same programming.
aftra
    American federation of television and radio artists. a union for artists who perform on broadcast media, including tape.
america online - aol
    Commercial information service with a graphical interface.
analog-to-digital - a/d conversion
    The conversion of an analog signal into a digital equivalent. an a/d converter samples or measures an input voltage and outputs a digitally encoded number corresponding to that voltage.
animation
  1. A video, film, and computer production technique utilizing cartoon-type artwork to create the illusion of movement.

  2. Мультипликация; анимация; "оживление" изображения; формирование и... animación;
ansi - american national standards institute
    Ansi is one of these terminal emulation methods. although most popular on pc-based bulletin-board systems, it can also be found on some internet sites. to use it properly, you will first have to t...
antenna power
    The product of the square of the broadcast antenna current and the antenna resistance where the current is measured.
application software
  1. In computers, programs used to interact with and accomplish work for the user. application software is usually written in a higher computer language such as basic, cobol, fortran or pascal, an...
applications program
    A computer program dedicated to a specific purpose or task. applications programs which produce discernible results and can sometimes be machine-independent, are distinct from systems programs, wh...
archival
  1. A medium that is readable and/or writable for an extended period.

  2. Long-lasting. in processing, those procedures that help insure stability of the image. also, storage materials that... sucesión en la propiedad de un archivo .;
asynchronous communication
  1. Takes place in different time frames and accessed at the user`s convenience. synchronous communication takes place in the same time frame such as a live teleconference.

  2. Асинхронная ...
atm - asynchronous transfer mode
    Atm switching protocol can handle all types of traffic - voice, data, image, and video.
atv - advanced television
    An agglomeration of techniques, based largely on digital signal processing and transmission, that permits far more program material to be carried through channels than existing analog systems can ...
audio bridge
    An audio bridge connects the telephones at remote sites, equalizes the noise distortion and background noise for a live audio teleconference.
audio presentation
    Often overlooked, but just as important as the video (perhaps more so) is the sound portion of the program. without the audio, nothing is understood while a video failure could be tolerated if the...
audio response
    A form of output that uses verbal replies to inquiries. the computer is programmed to seek answers to inquiries made on a time-shared on-line system and then to utilize a special audio response un...
audio response unit
  1. Device that provides a spoken response to digital inquiries from a telephone or other device. the response is composed from a prerecorded vocabulary of words and can be transmitted over teleco... aru;
audio teleconferencing
    Two-way electronic voice communication between two or more groups, or three or more individuals, who are in separate locations.
audiographic
    Teleconference system which uses narrow band telecommunications channels (telephone lines or subcarriers); transmits audio and graphics. graphics can be transmitted by facsimile transceivers (tran...
audio-subcarrier
    Frequency which transmits audio for an accompanying video signal or independent audio (such as a radio program). audio is sent along with the video signal, but on a different frequency.
aural cable
    Services providing fm-only original programming to cable systems on a lease basis.
authoring system
  1. Computer software that allows one to develop the framework for an interactive multimedia presentation. authoring software enables the use of multiple data types as well as the controls needed ... sistema protegido .;
automatic number identification - ani
    The automatic identification of a calling station, usually for automatic message accounting. also used in pay-per-view automated telephone order entry to identify a customer for billing and progra...
backbone microwave system
    A series of directional microwave paths carrying common information to be relayed between remote points. the backbone microwave system is engineered to allow the insertion of signals, the dropping...
base band distribution systems
    Usually used when the viewing areas are close together, and when tv monitors are used for viewing. the base band audio/video output from the satellite receivers is fed directly into the monitor. t...
basic rate interface - bri
    The basic subscriber loop for one or two users, which delivers two 64 kpbs b channels and one 16 kbps d channel over a standard twisted pair loop. each circuit-switched b channel can transmit voic...
basic receivers
    Lowest cost; limited (or manual) channel tuning capability; may use fixed antennas.
batched communication
    The sending of a large body of data from one station to another station network, without intervening responses from the receiving unit.
bbs - bulletin board system/service
    The bbs is an area within a network where users can post information for public display, in much the same way one posts information on a regular bulletin board. most networks dedicate a bulletin b...
beyond the horizon region
    That physical region beyond the optical horizon with which line-of- sight radio communications is not normally possible, but can occur if atmospheric conditions are such to cause beam bending or f...
bicycle tapes
    The process whereby video tape material is distributed by sending or bicycling the tape after presentation to the next site for its scheduled presentation.
bidirectional flow
  1. A pathway allocating two-way data or communication exchange; flow in either direction represented on the same flow line in a flowchart.

  2. Двунаправленный поток
binary files
    Those containing information that is not represented in the file by ascii characters. these may be graphics, formatted files, or even executable programs. in order to send these files, special up-...
bisdn - broadband isdn
    Is expected to offer dedicated circuits, switched circuits and packet services at rates of 155 mbps and above.bisdn is currently in the conceptual stage, and the term refers to a family of service...
bit density
  1. A measure of the number of bits received per unit of length or area.

  2. Плотность записи в битах на единицу длины; плотность в битах; плотность записи
bit stream
  1. A continuous string of bit positions occurring serially in time.

  2. Поток двоичных разрядов; битовый поток; двоичный поток
corriente de (transferencia) de bits;
blanking (picture)
    The portion of the composite video signal whose instantaneous amplitude makes the vertical and horizontal retrace invisible.
blanking signal
    A specified series of blanking pulses.
block downconverter - bdc
    Located at the antenna. the multi-conversion process of converting the entire band to an intermediate frequency (4 ghz to 1 ghz) for transmission to multiple receivers, where the next conversion t...
block-error rate
    The ratio of the number of blocks incorrectly received to the total number of blocks sent.
b-mac
    A method of transmitting and scrambling television signals where mac (multiplexed analog component) signals are time-multiplexed with a digital burst containing digitized sound, video synchronizin...
bmi and ascap
    Broadcast music incorporated and american society composers and publishers which serve the same function of licensing and collecting creative royalties on works of music played in live public perf...
branch cable
  1. A cable that diverges from a main cable to reach some secondary point.

  2. Отводной кабель
branching
  1. A computer operation, such as switching, where a choice is made between two or more possible courses of action depending upon some related fact or condition.

  2. Deflecting

  3. Р... разветвление; ответвление; ответвление; разветвление; ветвление;; переход; передача управления;; ветвящийся;
bridging amplifier
    An amplifier connected directly into the main trunk of the catv system. it serves as a sophisticated tap, providing isolation from the main trunk, and has multiple high level outputs that provide ...
broadband network
  1. A local area network (lan) residing on coaxial cable capable of transporting multiple data, voice and video channels.

  2. Широкополосная сеть
burst modem
    In satellite communications, an electronic device used at each station that sends high-speed bursts of data which are interleaved with one another. these bursts must be precisely timed to avoid da...
burst transmission
    Data transmission at a specific data signaling rate during controlled intermittent fiintervals.
bus controller
  1. The unit in charge of generating bus commands and control signals. glossary/12

  2. Шинный контроллер; контроллер шины
bus interface
  1. An electronic pathway between cpus and input/output devices. a bus interface for a cd-rom drive consists of a controller card and cable.

  2. Шинный интерфейс; интерфейс шины; устройство...
business television - btv
    Corporate use of video transmission for meetings/training via satellite.
c/n - c/nr - carrier to noise ratio
    Refers to the ratio of the satellite carrier (or signal) to noise level in a given channel. usually measured in db at the lna output.
cable compatible
    Generally refers to consumer devices, such as television sets and videocassette recorders, that are designed and constructed to allow direct connection of a catv subscriber drop to the device. fre...
cable/cable television
    A broadband communications technology in which multiple television channels as well as audio and data signals are transmitted either one way or bidirectionally through a distribution system to sin...
cablecasting
    Origination of programming, usually other than automated alphanumeric services, by a catv system. cable communications policy act of 1984 this act, passed by congress in 1984, updated the original...
cache
  1. In a processing unit, a high-speed buffer storage that is continually updated to contain recently accessed contents of main storage. its purpose is to reduce access time. a holding area for da... сверхоперативная память; кэш; быстродействующая буферная память; кэш-память;; помещать в кэш; кэшировать;
candle power
  1. A measure of intensity of a light source in a specific direction.

  2. One of several ways to measure and compare incident light levels. more common photo/video ones: foot candles, lux, ...
catv- community antenna television
    A broadband communications system capable of delivering multiple channels of entertainment programming and nonentertainment information from a set of centralized antennas, generally by coaxial cab...
cav - constant angular velocity
    A disk that rotates at a constant rate of speed. examples are hard drives, floppy disks, magneto-optical discs and some videodiscs. a cav videodisc permits access to video within seconds, allows f...
cbt - computer based training
    The use of interactive computer or video programs for instructional purposes. glossary/15
ccitt standard
    Transmission rate of px64 or multiples.
ccl - connection control language
    A scripting language that allows the user to control a modem.
cd audio jack
    An outlet on a cd-rom drive that provides audio playback through speakers or headphones. only red book, or true cd-audio sound can be heard from the audio jack on a cd-rom drive.
cd-audio
    Also called cd-da for compact disc-digital audio. the use of cds to record music in digital audio format. the disc holds a sequence of audio tracks. each can be a very high-fidelity stereo recordi...
cd-i
    1. compact disc-interactive. stores text, audio, video, images and animation. requires a player and will not work on a regular cd-rom player. 2. this interactive multimedia system, developed by ph...
cd-rom compact disc - read only memory
    Cd-rom discs can store a variety of data types including text, color graphics, sound, animation and digitized video that can be accessed and read through a computer. a disc can store up to 600 meg...