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Fisheries glossary

cephalopods
    (from the greek for "head-feet") animals such as squid and octopus where tentacles converge at the head. cephalopods are the most intelligent of the invertebrates with well developed senses and la...
bimodal
  1. A bimodal distribution is a distribution with two different modes which appear as distinct peaks. an example in fisheries is the length of fish in a fishery, which might show two or more modes...
lagoon
  1. A body of shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.

  2. An inland broad expanse of salt water, usual... пруд-накопитель; lgn; лагуна;
carapace
    A calcified protective cover on the upper frontal surface of crustaceans. it is particularly well developed in lobsters and crabs.
каранакс;
phosphate
  1. A chemical compound containing phosphorus and oxygen, commonly found in agricultural fertilizers and land runoff.

  2. A salt of phosphoric acid
фосфат;
la niña
    A condition involving an excessive pooling of cool water which occurs in the equatorial eastern pacific ocean. see el niño.
isobath
  1. A contour line linking regions of the same depth.

  2. Изобата
изобата;
turbidity current
  1. A current of rapidly moving, sediment-laden water that is heavier than clear water and therefore flows downslope along the bottom of the sea or a lake. the term is most commonly used to descri...
downwelling
    A downward movement (sinking) of surface water caused by onshore ekman transport, converging currents or when a water mass becomes more dense than the surrounding water.
dropline
    A fishing line with one or more hooks, held vertically in the water column with weights and generally used on the continental shelf and slope. several droplines may be operated by a vessel, either...
bottom trawling
    A fishing method that involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor. bottom trawling can cause serious damage to sea floor habitats.
purse seine
    A fishing technique capable of harvesting large quantities of surface-schooling pelagic fish by surrounding the school with a net. a line which passes through rings on the bottom of the net can be...
crab pot fishery
    A fishing technique where crabs are lured by bait into portable traps, sometimes called pots.
alginate production
    A gel substance extracted from brown algae and used industrially as a thickening agent for food and paint.
line fishing
    A general term for fishing methods which use fishing lines. it includes handlines, hand reels, powered reels, pole-and-line, droplines, longlines, trotlines and troll lines.
driftnet
    A gillnet suspended by floats so that it fishes the top few metres of the water column. drift nets can be many kilometres long. because drift nets are not anchored to the sea bottom or connected t...
crustaceans
    A group of freshwater and saltwater animals having no backbone, with jointed legs and a hard shell made of chitin. includes crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp and krill.
mollusc
    A group of freshwater and saltwater animals with no skeleton and usually one or two hard shells made of calcium carbonate. includes oysters, clams, mussels, snails, conches, scallops, squid and oc...
echinoderms
    A group of marine animals that includes seastars, sea urchins and sea cucumbers, abundant on the floor of the deep sea, as well as in shallower seas.
species group
    A group of similar species. similar species are often difficult to differentiate without detailed examination.
population model
    A hypothesis of how a population functions. it often uses mathematical descriptions of growth, recruitment and mortality.
super seiner
    A large purse seiner, over 70 metres long, with its own freezing and storage facilities, capable of undertaking extended transoceanic voyages for harvesting fish.
antarctic convergence
    A line encircling antarctica where cold, northward-flowing antarctic waters meet and sink beneath the sub-antarctic waters, creating an upwelling zone which is very high in marine productivity, es...
longlines
    A long fishing line with many short lines, called snoods and carrying hooks, attached at regular intervals. pelagic longlines are suspended horizontally at a fixed depth using surface floats. deme...
individual transferable quota (itq)
    A management tool by which the total allowable catch quota is allocated to individual fishers or companies who have long-term rights over the quota or can transfer it to others by sale, lease, or ...
primary productivity
    A measurement of plant production that is the start of the food chain. much primary productivity in marine or aquatic systems is made up of phytoplankton, which are tiny one-celled algae that floa...
jigging
  1. A method of fishing which uses lures on a vertical line that is moved up and down, or jigged. jigging can be done manually with hand-operated spools. it is also done automatically using machin... применение сборочных приспособлений; отсадки; отсадка; отсадочный;
aerial survey
  1. A method of gathering information on surface fish movement and density by visual observation and photography from low-flying aircraft.

  2. Воздушное фотографирование; воздушная разведка... as;
precautionary principle
    A moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public or to the environment, in the absence of a scientific consensus that ... принципы предосторожности;
mariculture
    A particular branch of aquaculture where marine organisms are cultivated in the open ocean, or an enclosure of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways filled with seawater. examples are the farm...
predator-prey
    A predator is a species that feeds on other species. a prey is a species that is being being eaten by a predator.
algal bloom
  1. A rapid excessive growth of algae, generally caused by high nutrient levels, particularly phosphorus. when the algae die, algal blooms can deplete oxygen to the point where fish cannot survive...
biotone
    A region where a distinctive transition from one set of biota to another occurs. an example is the region where tropical and temperate waters mix.
ocean tracking network
    A research effort using implanted acoustic transmitters to study fish migration patterns.
exclusive economic zone (eez)
  1. A seazone under the law of the sea over which a state has special rights to the exploration and use of marine resources. generally a state's eez extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (37...
estuary
  1. A semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. healthy estuaries can have high rates of biological produc... est.; эстуарий;
meristics
    A series of measurements on a fish, such as scale counts, which are used to separate different populations or races of fish.
turtle excluder device (ted)
    A specialized device that allows a captured sea turtle to escape when caught in a trawl net.
vulnerable species
    A species which is likely to become an endangered species unless the circumstances threatening its survival and reproduction improve.
delisted
    A species which is no longer listed under the esa. see also recovered species.
quota management system (qms)
    A system that limits the amount of fish that can be taken by commercial fishers. the qms sets a quota that can be taken by each commercial fisher.
migration
  1. A systematic (as opposed to random) movement of individuals in a fish stock from one place to another.

  2. The loss of plasticizer from a plastic, usually due to heat or aging. it is un... migración; миграция;
acoustic survey
    A systematic gathering of information on fish availability and abundance using underwater sound.
electrophoresis
  1. A technique used by fisheries scientists. tissue samples are taken from fish, and electrophoresis is used to separate proteins such as enzymes, based on their different mobilities in an electr... электрофорез;
straddling stocks
    A term defined by the united nations as "stocks of fish such as pollock, which migrate between, or occur in both, the economic exclusion zone of one or more states and the high seas". they can con...
artisan fishing
    A term sometimes used to describe small scale commercial or subsistence fishing practices. the term particularly applies to coastal or island ethnic groups using traditional techniques and traditi...
highly migratory species
    A term which has its origins in the united nations convention on the law of the sea. it refers to fish species which undertake ocean migrations and also have wide geographic distributions. it usua...
nitrate
  1. A water-soluble molecule made up of nitrogen and oxygen, commonly found in agricultural fertilizers, and therefore in land runoff. too much nitrate concentration is can be toxic to marine life... florecimiento (de hongos) del nitrato; нитрат; азотировать; селитра; соль азотной кислоты;
danish seine
    A widely used commercial fishing technique which uses a small trawl net with long wire warps. the seine boat drags the warps and the net in a circle around the fish. the motion of the warps herds ...
socioeconomics
    A word used to identify the importance of factors other than biology in fishery management decisions. for example, if management results in more fishing income, it is important to know how the inc...
halocline
    A zone in which salinity changes rapidly.
скачок сол;
selectivity
  1. Ability of a type of fishing tackle or gear to catch a certain size or kind of fish, compared with its ability to catch other sizes or kinds.

  2. Селективность
избирательность; селективность; избирательности;
tidal current
  1. Alternating horizontal movement of water in coastal areas, associated with the rise and fall of the tide as the earth rotates. the rise and fall is caused by gravitational forces exerted by th... приливное течение;
fishing fleet
    An aggregation of fishing vessels of a particular country, such as the russian fishing fleet, or using a particular gear, such as purse seine fleet.
harmful algal bloom (hab)
    An algal bloom that produces toxins detrimental to plants and animals. scientists prefer this term to red tide, since not all algal blooms are harmful, nor do all algal blooms cause discoloration,...
virtual population analysis (vpa)
    An analysis of fish population numbers that uses the number of fish caught at various ages or lengths and an estimate of natural mortality to estimate fishing mortality in a cohort. it also provid...
simulation
  1. An analysis that shows the production and harvest of fish using a group of equations to represent the fishery. it can be used to predict events in the fishery if certain factors change. see po... моделирование; seec; sim; расчетная кривая; кривая, полученная в результате теоретических расчетов; моделирования; машинное моделирование;
oxytetracycline
  1. An antibiotic which is injected in a fish to leave a mark on its skeletal structures such as otoliths. when the fish is later recaptured, the mark left can be used to validate age estimates.
dead zone
    An area in an ocean or large lake where oxygen levels are extremely low, often due to eutrophication. dead zones have been increasing since the 1970s.
мертвая зона; зона молчания;; зона нечувствительности (устройства);
endangered species
    An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming extinct. the iucn has calculated the percentage of endangered species as 40 percent of all organisms based on the ...
eutrophication
    An increase in chemical nutrients ? typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus ? in an ecosystem. eutrophication in water often results in an increase in algae growth and decay, which c... эвтрофикация; эвтрофикация, евтрофикация (зарастание водоёма);
otter trawl
    An otter trawl is a demersal trawl which uses large rectangular otter boards to keep the opening of the trawl net from closing. otter trawls are towed by a single trawler.
commercial fishery
    An umbrella term covering fisheries resources and the whole process of catching and marketing fish, molluscs and crustaceans. it includes the fishermen and their boats, and all activities and reso...
ectothermic
    Animals that control body temperature through external means, using the sun, or flowing air or water.
endothermic
  1. Animals that generate body heat above ambient temperatures through various physiological and anatomical specializations. see ectothermic.

  2. Said of a reaction which occurs with the ab... эндотермический;
vertebrates
    Animals with a backbone, including fish (sharks, rays and bony fish), amphibians, reptiles and mammals. see also invertebrates.
invertebrates
    Animals without a backbone, such as octopus, shellfish, jellyfish and corals. see also vertebrates.
eulittoral zone
    Another name for the intertidal zone or foreshore, extending from the spring high tide line to the neep low tide line.
fishing vessel
    Any vessel normally used for the harvesting of living aquatic resources or in support of such activity. this includes vessels which provide assistance to other fishing vessels such as supply, stor...
pelagic zone
    Any water in the sea that is not close to the bottom.
stakeholder
  1. Anyone who has a stake or interest in the outcome of the project, as well as anyone one who is affected by the project.

  2. A person, group, or community who has an interest in activiti... заинтересованная сторона; заинтересованные стороны; заинтересованное лицо, стейкхоулдер; причастная сторона;
benthos
  1. Aquatic organisms which live on or in the seabed, also known as the benthic zone. included are both mobile animals, such as crabs and abalone, and non mobile animals, such as corals and sponge... бентос;
mud flat
    Are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by the tides or rivers, sea and oceans. they are found in sheltered areas such as bays, bayous, lagoons, and estuaries.
tidal flats
    Are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers. also called mudflats.
transboundary stocks
    Are fish stocks which range across the eezs of two or more countries. they can be contrasted with straddling stocks. a stock can be both transboundary and straddling.
ocean surface waves
    Are surface waves that occur on the free surface of the ocean. they usually result from wind, and are also referred to as wind waves. some waves can travel thousands of miles before reaching land....
wetlands
    Areas of land where the soil is saturated with moisture, such as swamps and mangrove forests.
сильно увлажн; pantanos;