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Dictionaries and Glossaries

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absolute energy
    The total amount of energy consumed by an entity and those deemed to be within its organisational boundaries.
accounting standards update (asu)
    A document issued by the financial accounting standards board (fasb) in the united states, which details accounting standards and guidance on selected accounting policies set out by fasb. see www....
adc arrangements
    An adc arrangement is an arrangement in which a bank (lender) provides financing for real estate acquisition, development, or construction purposes and has virtually the same risks and potential r...
additional contingent interest
    Lender participation in the appreciation in value of the underlying property in a participating loan (reis)
additionality
    The positive impact that would not have occurred without the investment. real estate impact investment strategies may ensure additionality by creating additional affordable housing, social housing...
affordable housing
    Affordable housing refers to housing units that are affordable to buy or rent by the low-income section of a society (for example, whose income is below median household income). affordability is ...
all-in interest rate
    The percentage rate charged by a lender which includes the reference rate (e.g. libor / euribor / sonia) plus a margin.
allocated loan amount
    The amount of loan attributed to a particular portion of the underlying collateral, usually a single property within a portfolio of underlying assets.
alternative investment fund (aif)
    The european securities and markets authority (esma) defines aif as any collective investment undertaking, including investment compartments thereof, which raises capital from a number of investor...
alternative investment fund manager (aifm)
    A specific form of a management company authorized to manage an alternative investment fund (aif) in the context of european regulation (see https://www.esma.europa.eu).
anrev
    Anrev is the asian association for investors in the non-listed real estate vehicles. the platform for sharing knowledge on the non-listed real estate industry and to improve transparency, professi...
asset liability matching (alm)
    A form of risk management which entails managing assets and cash flows to satisfy liabilities.
asset management company
    A legal entity that specialises in the tactical management of a vehicle's assets on behalf of the owner of the real estate. services may include strategic input and production of asset level b...
asset weighted
    An averaging technique whereby numerical characteristics (such as interest rates or rents) of a group of assets are averaged in proportion to each asset's common characteristic (such as asset ...
asset weighting methodology
    Asset weighting of the portfolio returns within a composite using beginning-of-period weightings, beginning of period market values plus weighted cash flows, or by aggregating portfolio assets and...
asset-backed securities (abs)
    A security issued as part of a securitisation, which is backed by a portfolio assets, which may or may not be income generating.
asset-weighted composites
    An aggregation of individual portfolios representing a similar investment objective or strategy, weighted by the beginning-of-period market values of the constituent portfolios.
assignment / transfer clauses
    Typically an assignment is an agreement to transfer all of the rights (but not the obligations) under a contract to a new lender evidenced by an assignment agreement. the specific definition will ...
attachment point ltv
    The ltv point at which the senior loan ends and junior loan starts, for example 55% ltv would typically be the detachment point of a senior loan and the attachment point at which the junior loan w...
audit costs
    Costs associated with annual external audit engagements and other audit services provided (both paid to independent third party firms or manager/advisor).
authorised management company
    A type of management company which is authorised and regulated to manage investment vehicles in respective domiciles as required. examples include and ria in the us and aif in europe.
bank / loan / overdraft / debt interest
    Definition bank charges.
base interest
    Contractually stated fixed or floating rates in a participating loan (reis)
base rent income
    Income derived strictly from leased space, i.e., not including percentage rents which is a separate data field.
borrower sustainability credentials
    Data that reflects the sustainability performance of a borroweror sponsor and can include, but is not limited to, a corporate esg rating and benchmarking scheme such as cdp or gresb, among others....
borrower sustainability scorecard
    Document that outlines key sustainability attributes and risks of a borrower/sponsor.
boundaries
    The boundaries that determine the direct and indirect emissions associated with operations owned or controlled by the reporting company. this assessment allows a fund manager to establish which op...
break costs
    The cost payable by a borrowerfor early repayment of all or a portion of a loan as outlined in the break clause of the loan agreement.
building energy intensity
    The amount of energy used per unit of an appropriate denominator (e.g. floor area, persons).
building ghg intensity
    The amount of carbon used per unit of an appropriate denominator (e.g. floor area, persons).
building types
    Categorisation based on the function or form of a building for example: offices, shopping centres, retail warehouses, industrial, multi-family housing, hotels.
building water intensity
    The amount of water used per unit of an appropriate denominator (e.g. floor area, persons).
bullet repayment
    A facility where the repayment (principal or principal and interest) is made in one amount on the final maturity date of the loan agreement.
capital expenditure (capex) facility
    A loan that must be used for capital expenditure (i.e. investment in physical assets such as land, buildings and equipment).
capital expenditures (capex)
    Costs related to capital improvements for an asset that lengthen its life and increase its value. this is an addition to any maintenance operating expenses.
capital gain / loss (realized)
    All realized capital gains/ losses on all vehicle assets and liabilities.
capital gain / loss (unrealized)
    All unrealized capital gains / losses on all vehicle assets and liabilities.
caps (interest)
    An interest hedging instrument that provides for maximum increases allowed in interest rates, payments, maturity extensions and negative amortization on reset dates.
carbon disclosure project
    The carbon disclosure project (cdp) works with shareholders and corporations to disclose the greenhouse gas emissions of major corporations.
carbon trading
    Carbon emissions trading (also known as cap and trade) is a market-based approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants...
carried interest
    A re-allocation of profits from the investor's capital account to the investment manager capital account based on the ability of the latter party to outperform a certain predetermined benchmar...
carve-outs (lending)
    Provisions within nonrecourse commercial real estate loans where the borrower may become personally liable in the event of certain egregious acts (e.g. fraud). recently, lenders have expanded the ...
cash management fee third party
    Definition bank charges.
cash sweep
    The right to redirect cash from an underlying asset to meet debt service obligations where the borrower is unable to fulfil its debt service obligations.
catch-up
    Catch-up takes effect when an investors returns reach the defined hurdle rate, giving them an agreed level of preferred return. the manager then enters a catch-up period, in which it may receive ...
cfa institute
    The cfa institute is a global not-for-profit association of investment professionals. the institute awards the cfa (chartered financial analyst designation). see www.cfainstitute.org. the institut...
claw backs
    A reduction to previous received or allocated performance fees or carried interest due to investment performance falling below predetermined benchmarks.
climate risk
    "climate risks result from the impacts of climate change and comprise physical risk and transition risk. both components of climate risks might have significant impact on real estate assets a...
closed-end
    An investmentvehicle with a fixed amount of capital and a finite life. limited liquidity, with the redemption of units provided for at the end of the life of the vehicle.
club deal
    Informal industry term used to describe an investment vehicle or structure (often a fund) with generally a limited number of investors investing in a common strategy. typically investors have more...
commingled fund
    A term applied to all open-end and closed end pooled investment vehicles. a commingled fund may be organized as a group trust, partnership, corporation, insurance company separate account, or othe...
commitment fees
    A commitment fee is a charge to investors on undrawn committed capital for the duration of the commitment period. this is seen to be part of the fund management fee.
commitment period
    The commitment period is the period of time after the first closing during which an investor is obliged to contribute capital upon receiving a drawdown notice from the manager
common parts
    Areas which are shared with other occupants in multi-let buildings, including entrance areas, corridors, lifts, staircases, waste storage stores, communal kitchen or breakout facilities and any ot...
community center (retail)
    In addition to convenience goods, provides for the sale of goods such as apparel or furniture. typical area is 100,000 to 350,000 square feet with two or more anchor tenants.
compensation prepayment proceeds
    Payments which are required to be used in mandatory prepayment.
conditions precedent
    Conditions of a loan facility agreement which must be fulfilled prior to a borrower being able to drawdown principal amounts under the loan.
conditions subsequent
    Conditions which cannot be satisfied prior to entering into a loan and which have to be satisfied within a certain period of time following entry into the loan. failure to satisfy these conditions...
kind. in the united states financial services industry, however, a construction loan is a more specific type of loan designed for construction and containing features such as interest reserves, where repayment ability may be based on something that can on
    contingent interest
      A percentage of property net income or cash flow after debt service in a participating loan.
    contractual interest
      The base or minimum interest rate paid exclusive of amounts payable as a result of the participation feature.
    contractual principal
      The nominal principal of a loan exclusive of amounts payable as a result of any participation feature.
    controlling equity interest
      An ownership position that meets the requirements of control according to the governing accounting literature.
    core (inrev style)
      A fund which invests mainly in income producing investments. the fund will use low leverage, have no or very low development exposure and generate a high proportion of return through income.
    core (rs style)
      An account that includes a preponderance of core attributes; the account as a whole will have low leasing exposure and low leverage. a low percentage of noncore assets is acceptable. as a result, ...
    cost approach (valuation technique)
      Based on the amount that currently would be required to replace the service capacity of an asset (often referred to as current replacement cost).
    cost of development portfolio
      All costs paid up in relation to all assets under development.
    costs of sale
      An estimate of the incremental direct costs to transact the sale of the property. these costs generally include brokerage commissions, closing costs and fees, and other necessary disposition expen...
    credit default swap (cds)
      A financial derivative product that transfers credit risk from one counterparty to another.
    credit enhancements
      Additional collateral, insurance, or third party guarantee required by the borrower generally in exchange for a lower interest rate or cost of capital.
    cross collateralization
      The act of using an asset that is currently being used as collateral for a loan as collateral for a second loan
    cumulative twr returns
      Returns for periods longer than a single period, calculated by geometrically linking all periods in the measurement period.
    cure rights
      Cure rights are designed to remedy a breach of a financial covenant and, within an agreed timeframe, avoid the occurrence of an event of default as a result of such breach.
    currency exposure
      Amount of foreign currency as a ratio of the vehicle currency, expressed as percentage of nav
    current development exposure as percentage of gav
      The percentage of vehicle gav that is invested in development projects. this equals fair value of development portfolio/ gav of vehicle.
    custodian costs
      Also known as depository costs, these are charged by a fiduciary entity entrusted with holding and safeguarding securities or assets, deposit transactions and keeping records for institutional cli...
    dead deal costs
      Costs usually charged by third parties concerning work undertaken for acquisition/disposition projects which do not ultimately close. such costs cannot be capitalised, and thus must be expensed. s...