Глоссарий



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Строительный словарь и глоссарий по конструкциям

across the grain
    The direction at right angles to the length of the fibres and other longitudinal elements of the wood.
adhesive
  1. A substance used to bond two surfaces together.

  2. Клей; клеящее вещество

  3. A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment

  4. A substance capa... клеящее вещество, клеящая мастика; клей; adh; adhsv; клейкий;
air velocity
    The velocity of air in the passages between rows of boards in a rack.
скорость воздуха;
air-dried timber
    Timber dried by exposure to air in a yard or shed, without artificial heat (also see seasoning).
along the grain
  1. The direction parallel with the length of the fibres and other longitudinal elements of the wood.

  2. Вдоль волокон (о древесине, пиломатериалах, фанерном шпоне и т.п.)
anchor bolt
  1. A device for connecting timber members to concrete or masonry

  2. A bolt or other device used to secure a diamond-drill base to a solid foundation. it may or may not be threaded.
anisotropic
  1. Exhibiting different properties when measured along its different axes.

  2. Exhibiting different properties when measured along different axes

  3. Descriptive of a material (such... анизотропный;
anti-stain chemical
    A chemical applied to timber to prevent or retard chemical or fungal stain development.
arris
    The sharp intersection of two surfaces, eg. the face and edge of a piece of wood .
гребень;
back sawn timber
    Timber sawn so that the growth rings are inclined at less than 45 degrees to the wide face.
bevel
  1. Any angle not at 90 degrees. also, a tool for marking such an angle.

  2. Скос, фаска

  3. The shaping of the edge around the periphery of a lens necessary to hold the lens within ... скос эмали; bev; наклонная поверхность;; угол наклона;; эффект "выпуклость";; косой; косоугольный;
biodeterioration
    The breaking down of timber by natural or biological agents such as fungi and insects.
биоповреждение; биоповреждение (лесная отрасль); см. biodegradation; biodegradation;
biota
  1. All living animals and plants

  2. Plants and animals in an environment. some of these plants and animals might be sources of food, clothing, or medicines for people.
биота;
birds eye
    Figure on the surface of wood that has numerous rounded areas resembling small eyes.
bird's-mouth
    The notch in a rafter that rests on the top plate of a wall.
2. manufactured products supplied as rigid or semi-rigid sheets, eg. fibreboard and particle boards.
    boreal forest
      The forest areas of the northern north temperate zone dominated by coniferous trees such as spruce, fir and pine.
    botanical name
      The botanical names of species and their relationship to trade names are defined in as 2543, nomenclature of australian timbers and as 1148, nomenclature of commercial timbers imported into austra...
    bound moisture
      Moisture which is closely bound to the cell wall constituents of wood.
    bound water
      Water molecules bound into the cell wall of timber. they are weakly bound chemically to the molecules of the cell wall and energy is required to break them free.
    связанная вода;
    bowstring truss
      A truss where the top chord of the truss is curved to an arch shape
    box beam
    1. A built-up beam with solid timber flanges (a) and plywood or wood-base panel product webs (b).

    2. A built‑up beam with solid wood flanges and plywood or wood-‑based...
    building material ecological sustainability index
      The building material ecological sustainability index is based on life cycle assessment but attempts to combine a number of criteria into three primary ones. there are:
    resource depletion
      inherent pollution &
        embodied energy
          these characteristics within these criteria are given a rating from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important) in terms of their environmental impact .
            burl
            1. 1. a hard, woody outgrowth on a tree, more or less rounded in form, usually resulting from the entwined growth of a cluster of buds. such burls are the source of the highly figured burl veneer...
            2. in lumber or veneer, a localised severe distortion of the grain generally rounded in outline.
              butt joint
              1. An end joint formed by abutting the squared ends of two pieces.

              2. The junction where the ends of two timbers meet, and also where sheets of drywall meet on the 4 foot edge. to place m... стыковое соединение (соединение встык, стыковка);
              carbon sink
                A carbon sink is something that removes or stores carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, for example growing vegetation.
              case hardening
                A drying defect characterised by the presence of compression stresses in the outer zone and tensile stresses in the core. it occurs when rapid drying has caused permanent set of the outer zones of...
              casein glue
              1. An adhesive, primarily for internal use, prepared from casein, sodium silicate, lime, soda and other compounds. it was used largely in plywood manufacturer, has some resistance to water but is...
              cathedral cut
                A variation of the crown cut method of slicing veneers. the growth rings are exactly parallel to the slicer, producing on the face of the veneer an inverted 'v' figure resembling the spire of a ca...
              cellulose
              1. The carbohydrate that is the principal constituent of wood and forms the framework of wood cells.

              2. The carbohydrate that is the principal constituent of wood and forms the framework ... celulosa; ацетилцеллюлоза; целлюлоза; эмалит;
              chain of custody
              1. The process by which the source of a timber product is verified. this entails ‘tracking’ the timber from the forest through all the steps of the production process until it reaches the end use...
              cleavage test
                A test that measures the resistance of a timber to splitting longitudinally along the radial and tangential planes
              clerestory
              1. A window, or row of windows, in the upper part of a room where it can admit light from above an adjacent roof

              2. Стена с ленточными окнами чердачного этажа или надстройки над крышей; (...
              close- grained wood
                Wood with narrow, inconspicuous growth rings. the term is sometimes used to designate wood having small and closely spaced pores, but in this sense the term "fine textured" is more often used.
              coach screw
                Similar to a wood screw except larger and with a hexagonal head so that it can be turned with a spanner.
              lag bolt. coak 1. a projection from the end of a piece of wood or timber which fits into a hole in another piece to join them. 2. a dowel or hardwood pin through overlapping timbers.;
              coarse-grained wood
                Wood with wide conspicuous growth rings in which there is considerable difference between earlywood and latewood. the term is sometimes used to designate wood with large pores, but in this sense t...
              collar tie
              1. A horizontal board that connects pairs of rafters on opposite roof slopes.

              2. In wood roof construction, a timber which prevents the roof framing from changing its shape.
              comprehensive regional assessments
                A joint assessment of all forest values (environmental, heritage, economic and social) undertaken by the commonwealth and state – leading to the establishment of a car reserve system, agreements o...
              compression
              1. A state or condition of being pushed or shortened by a force.

              2. Сжатие

              3. Сжатие (данных), уменьшение размеров файла изображения. см. также lossy и non-lossy. процесс упаковки... компрессия, сжатие; cmp; compr; compresión; compresión de la imagen; сжатия; запрессовка; давлением; компрессия; обжатие;
              compression failure
              1. Deformation or fracture of wood fibres across the grain resulting from excessive compression along the grain.

              2. Deformation of the wood fibers resulting
              compression seat
                A fabricated or cast metal bracket into which timber structural members abut, used to joint timber compression elements to other structural members.
              conditioning treatment
                A treatment applied to equilibrate the moisture content of wood to a particular value.
              continuity strap
                A piece of flat steel fixed over a butt joint between timber beams to provide a continuos tension connection.
              control joint
              1. A vertical or horizontal gap, filled or unfilled, to accommodate differential movement between various elements of a construction

              2. Tooled, straight grooves made on concrete floors to... cj; clj;
              corbel
              1. A length of timber laid horizontally on the top of a column to transfer loads and to provide a seat for beams. a compound corbel includes several lengths of timber instead of one.

              2. T...
              temperature - an adjustment of the readings of the resistance-type electrical moisture meter to compensate for changes in the temperature of wood. corrections are tabulated in as/nzs 1080 1:1997
                coupe
                  A defined area of forest, usually with consistent characteristics.
                coupler
                1. A metal sleeve threaded internally and used to connect threaded rods or bolts

                2. To connect tubing together

                3. Блок связи

                4. A device that connectors three or more fibe... cplr; acoplador; объединитель; соединительная муфта; сцепка; соединительный хомут;; устройство связи; элемент связи; цепь связи;; сцепка;
                criteria and indicators
                  A criterion is a category of conditions or processes by which sustainable forest management may be assessed. a criterion is characterised by a set of related indicators that are monitored periodic...
                cross grain
                1. An arrangement in which the fibres and other longitudinal elements of a piece of wood deviate from a line parallel with the edges of the piece.

                2. Grain in wood not parallel with the l...
                crown cut
                  A method of slicing veneers whereby the average inclination of the growth rings to the wider face is tangential or less than 45 degrees. this method is also known as flat cut.
                cruciform
                  In the shape of a cross
                крестовый; крестообразный;
                decking
                1. Timber used in surfacing parts of bridges and other structures subjected to vehicular or pedestrian traffic.

                2. Material for covering a deck to make it more waterproof and durable, or ... покрытие (случка);
                dehumidifier kiln
                  A kiln working on the heat pump principle. moisture evaporated from the timber by a flow of warm air is condensed on the evaporator coils of a refrigeration unit and drained away. the refrigerant ...
                delamination
                1. The separation of plies or laminations through failure of the bond, visible at an edge.

                2. Separation of the plies in a panel due to failure of the adhesive. usually caused by excessiv... deslaminación; расслаивание; расслоение;
                dew point
                1. The temperature at which the relative humidity of a body of air is 100 per cent. further cooling causes vapour in the air to condense as water droplets.

                2. Точка росы

                3. The te... контроль точки росы; точка росы; dp; dwpnt; температура конденсации, точка росы; punto de condensación .;
                diamonding
                  The change of a square or rectangular section timber to a diamond shape during drying. diamonding occurs where the growth rings pass through diagonal corners of the section of the piece and is cau...
                2. a relatively thin, usually rectangular, element of a structure that is capable of withstanding shear in its plane and acts as a bracing elements.
                  diffusion
                  1. Movement of water through wood from points of high moisture content to points of low moisture content by molecular diffusion.

                  2. Рассеивание - процент рыночных ценных бумаг, располагаю... диффузия; proceso de difusión por transferencia .; рассеяния; светорассеивание; диффузии; диффузия, рассеивание;
                  diffusivity
                    A measure of the rate of moisture movement through wood by diffusion as a result of differences in moisture content
                  диффузивность; диффузии;
                  nominal - the general intended size of the dry rough sawn board.
                    machined - the actual size of a machined or moulded board.
                      dimensional change
                        Changes in the size of a piece of dry timber as its moisture content changes to be in equilibrium with the surrounding
                      atmospheric conditions.
                        dipping
                        1. Submerging timber in a dipping vat containing fungicides or other chemicals to prevent stain or decay.

                        2. Инфильтрационный колодец (колодец для восполнения запаса подземных вод)
                        инфильтрационный колодец; погружение; замачивание; опускание; залегание;
                        discoloration
                        1. Change in the colour of wood caused by fungal or chemical stains, weathering, or heat treatment.

                        2. Any change in color from the original color or from the desired color.

                        3. A ... обесцвечивание;
                        dowel
                        1. A cylindrical timber rod or steel bar generally without nut or thread driven into pre-drilled holes to make a joint.

                        2. A cylindrical wood or metal rod; used to secure two pieces of wo... штифт; дюбель; нагель;
                        dowel joint
                        1. A joint where the pieces of timber are joined by dowels running either longitudinally or transversely through the joint.

                        2. Any carpentry joint making use of dowels. dovetail half-lap ...
                        dressed timber
                          Timber finished to a smooth surface on one or more surfaces.
                        dressed lumber. drift index 1. the ratio of the lateral deflection of a building to its height. 2. the ratio of the lateral deflection of a story of a building to the height per story.;
                        dry rot
                        1. A generic term for the decay of timber by fungi that at an advanced stage leaves the wood light and friable. the term is actually a misnomer as all fungi needs considerable moisture to grow.
                        dryer
                        1. A chamber or apparatus used for drying or conditioning timber or veneer in which the temperature, humidity and velocity of the circulating air are usually controlled.

                        2. См. drier
                        drier.; сушильный аппарат;
                        drying
                          The process of removing moisture from timber to improve its serviceability in use. also see seasoning.
                        сушка;