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Flavors & fragrances glossary

coffret
    A collection or box set that often contains either smaller sample sizes of several fragrances in a line, or a fragrance and its accompanying bath products.
flanker
    A fragrance release related to a popular or distinctive pre-existing fragrance, a flanker is usually similar to the first fragrance but with one or two key alterations. more common in mainstream p...
extrait/extract
    A fragrance with a 15-45% concentration of perfume oil. extraits are generally the most concentrated form of perfume available to purchase.
sillage
    A french term that describes how much of a trail of scent is left behind the wearer. differs slightly from projection- sillage is more about how long a scent would linger in the air after the pers...
gourmand
    A gourmand fragrance is one that primarily evokes food, usually dessert. this can include notes of vanilla, chocolate, fruit, caramel, and more. some of our most notable gourmand scents include vi...
factice
    A replica bottle of a fragrance meant for store or advertising display that does not actually contain the fragrance itself.
skin scent
    A scent with minimal projection (i.e., one that can only be detected when extremely close to the wearer). because of the kinds of ingredients that tend to have this effect, many skin scents have s...
soliflore
    A soliflore is a fragrance that highlights the notes of one specific type of flower (although the ingredients may actually contain more than one). notable niche perfume soliflores include by kilia...
fougère
    A style of fragrance named for the french word for fern. fougères are usually herbal scents featuring lavender, oakmoss and woods, and they take their name from houbigant`s fougère royal...
enfleurage
  1. A traditional process for creating a fragrance absolute wherein the material is infused into animal fat, and then extracted from the fat into alcohol. the alcohol is then evaporated down to cr...
absolute/ absolue
    An absolute is a highly-concentrated fragrance oil similar to an essential oil, but produced via solvent extraction or enfleurage and therefore generally even more concentrated. absolutes are key ...
base notes
  1. Base notes are the heaviest, longest-lasting notes in a fragrance, that usually assert themselves after the heart notes have evaporated. base notes are often present during the middle phase of...
heart notes
    The heart notes, or middle notes, of a fragrance are the primary notes that define the way a scent is described and categorized. the heart notes generally assert themselves in the first 10 to 20 m...
drydown
  1. The last phase of a fragrance`s lifecycle, the drydown refers to the final hours of a fragrance`s detection, when the top and heart notes have completely disappeared and only the longest lasti...
fragrance families
    There have been various attempts over the years to break down the world of fragrance into classifiable categories. while there is no unchallenged standard, the often cited 7-category system used b...
bergamot
    Essential oil derived from bergamot orange, with a distinctive bitter fresh and orange odor.
accord (2)
    A balanced complex of 3 or 4 notes that loose their individual identity to create a completely new unified odor impression. analogous to the musical terminology where several notes are combined to...
fougere
    A classical accord built upon mossy, lavender, citrus character. the fougere accord is a very important class of fragrance used in perfumery.
sweet (2)
    A fragrance effect classically illustrated by the rose. the rose effect is constantly used to sweeten perfume oils during the course of their design. the rose is to the perfumer as sugar is to the...
light & heavy
    A light fragrance is balanced toward the top notes. a heavy fragrance is balanced towards the bottom notes.
micro-encapsulation
    A method of incorporating thin-walled, microscopic capsules containing fragrance oils into a solid substance (fragrance advertising inserts, capsules, blotters, paper, etc.)
aroma-cology
    A science conceived, named and supported by the olfactory research fund which is dedicated to the study of the inter-relationship of psychology and the latest in fragrance technology to transmit t...
infusion or tincture
    A solution obtained by prolonged contact with alcohol. when hot alcohols are used it is called infusion. when alcohols are at room temperature or warm the method is called a tincture.
balsam (balsamic)
    A sweet fragrance accord that provides rich, warm, resinous and very tenacious qualities to most compounds. also, described as woodiness associated with fresh-cut, well-seasoned non-coniferous woo...
cologne (classical)
    A term reserved for those fragrances which are basically citrus blends and do not have a perfume parent. modern colognes, however, are often a lighter extension of the perfume.
odor or odour
    Airborne chemicals emanating from water, objects, ones body, flowers or fragrance that stimulate the olfactory system. the characteristic smell of something.
bottom note
    Also called the dry down of the fragrance. this note contains the fixatives of the fragrance that impart the long lasting qualities.
aroma chemical
    Among the perfumers primary tools, some synthetic aroma chemicals duplicate chemicals that naturally occur in nature. these are classified as nature identical aroma chemicals. the second category...
spicy bouquet
    As the name implies, this group relies on spice notes such as clove, cinnamon, nutmeg and bay for its principal notes. spice notes are universally used in perfumery. examples are pierre cardin, sp...
base (dry down)
    Base notes are made up of the underlying tones of the fragrance, and are responsible for its lasting qualities. the ingredients used in base notes are often referred to as the fixatives.
pheromone
    Chemical substances secreted by animals (including perhaps humans) to produce a response by other members of the same species. sexual attractants are the most widely studied and described.
pomades
    Combination of purified fats and flower oils produced by the enfleurage and maceration processes.
extract (2)
    Concentrated perfume or flower products obtained through the process of extraction using volatile solvents.
musk
    For many centuries, musk (the secretion of the musk deer) has been prized for its value in perfumery. the pouch contains pod-like grains that are soft and light colored. from these the perfumer pr...
fougere (2)
    French word for fern. fougere fragrances depend on aromatic chemicals to produce the fern-like notes that combine well with lavender, citrus and coumarin in fragrances for men.
specialities
    Natural oils, natural isolates or synthetics, either alone or in combination, which are used as building blocks for fragrance compounds. they are less complex than a finished fragrance compound. t...
essences
    Products which endeavor to capture or emphasize the highly volatile top notes of natural products.
olfaction/olfactory
    Relating to the sense of smell.
rhizomes
    Root like stems with nodes, which grow under or along the ground. certain perfume raw materials come from rhizome, e.g., orris absolute and ginger oil.
perfume blotters
    Strips of odorless white blotting paper, which the perfumer uses to evaluate a scent as it develops.
undertones
    Subtle characteristics of the fragrance background creating pleasant nuances that are an important part of the fragrance character.
lastingness
    The ability of a fragrance to retain its character over a given period of time.
odor memory
    The ability of a perfumer to hold, and bring to recall, hundreds of single perfume odors and odor blends.
iincense
    The burning of fragrant gums or resins in a solid or powder form. it gives off a lingering, scented smoke and is the original form in which fragrances was used.
cologne (womens)
    The lightest form of fragrance with a low concentration of perfume oils mixed with diluted alcohol.
middle note
    The middle or heart notes make up a main blend of a fragrance that classifies the fragrance family or accord. it usually takes from ten to twenty minutes for the middle notes to fully develop on...
gums, resins, balsams
    The resinous exudates of the bark, twigs or leaves of trees or shrubs.
tobacco & leather
    These are two distinctive notes possessing great tenacity, used primarily in mens fragrances. their use is as important in modern perfumery as it was in the infancy of the art. some examples in t...
floral bouquet
    This is the most general group in the categorization of perfumes. the combination of jasmine, rose, ylang and tuberose, just to name a few, play an integral part in the creation of a floral bouque...
single florals
    This is the most specific category. generally the name of the fragrance is similar to the name of the floral it has taken inspiration from. although the major theme of the fragrance is a single fl...
cologne (mens)
    Unlike womens colognes, it is similar to the concentration of toilet water, eau de parfum, and in some instances perfume.
solvents
    Volatile fluids used to extract essential oils from flowers and other natural perfume materials.
enriched wheat flour
    A flour prepared by grinding wheat, removing its water content and fortifying it with vitamins and minerals such as niacin, ferrous sulfate, thiamin mononitrate, riboflavin and folic acid. erythri...
goji berry juice concentrate
    G oji berry juice that has had part of its water removed. graham crackers s lightly sweetened crackers that include whole wheat flour. graham flour a type of wheat flour. granola a cereal, usually...
palm kernel oil
    Oil that is obtained from the kernel of the palm fruit. it is a different oil than palm oil, which is obtained from the pulp of the oil palm fruit. palm oil oil that is obtained from the pulp of t...
green bell pepper
    Unripe fruit of a group of capsicum plants. since bell pepp ers do not produce capsaicin, they are mild and sweet. hazelnuts small, brown nuts found in various countries around the world. hazelnut...
fractionated vegetable oil
    Oil that has been separated into different fat components, such as separation of a fat into solid and liquid components. fructose a simple sugar that occurs naturally in fruit and honey. used to s...
mangosteen puree concentrate
    Crushed fruit of the mangosteen tree, a tropical evergreen tree, which has had some of its water removed. mannitol a reduced-calorie sugar alcohol used to replace sugar and provide sweetness. mars...
crushed red pepper
    Dried and crushed red chili peppers, including seeds. crystallized ginger ginger that has been cooked and coated with sugar. culture specific bacteria used to make yogurt. also known as starter cu...
organic invert cane syrup
    A liquid sweetener in which sugar has been partially or totally broken down into glucose and fructose. organic pretzels a baked bread product, originating from europe, which may have a knot-like s...
peach juice concentrate
    Peach juice that has had part of its water removed. peanut butter a spreadable food made by grinding roasted peanuts. peanut oil oil that is obtained from peanuts. peanuts small legumes that can b...
high fructose corn syrup
    A liquid sweetener with a sweetness level similar to table sugar. hfcs is produced from corn through the enzymatic conversion of glucose into fructose. also called glucose/ fructose in canada or a...
cranberry juice concentrate
    Cranberry juice that has had part of its water removed. cream a liquid ingredient high in milk fat separated from milk. cream of tartar a substance that acts as an acidifier and buffering agent. a...
sodium acid sulfate
    A food additive that helps maintain color of certain foods, adjust the acidity, or act as a preservative to increase a products shelf life. also known as sodium bisulfate. sodium alginate a gum o...
sesame seed oil
    Oil that is obtained by pressing sesame seeds. shea oil oil that is obtained from shea-nuts which are seeds from the shea tree. silicon dioxide a food additive used to prevent lumps from forming i...
whey protein isolate
    Whey that has had much of its non-protein material removed. typically contains at least 90% protein. whey proteins the proteins present in whey. white chocolate the food prepared by mixing cocoa b...
modified vegetable oils
    A term used on foods sold in canada which contain a vegetable oil which has been modified by complete or partial removal of a fatty acid. molasses a sweetener obtained from the process of converti...
sweet cherry juice concentrate
    Sweet cherry juice that has had part of its water removed. sweet chocolate a chocolate prepared by mixing chocolate liquor with a sweetener, such as sugar. the u.s. food and drug administration (u...
elderberry juice concentrate
    Elderberry juice which has had some of its water removed. d e glossary of ingredients, updated august 10, 2021 the hershey company 2021 emulsifier a type of food additive that helps prevent the s...
reduced protein whey
    Whey that has had part of its protein content removed. also called dairy product solids, modified whey, or deproteinized whey. in canada, it is labelled as modified milk ingredient. refined oil ed...
whole white wheat flour
    Flour which has been made from wheat and still contains all three parts of the grain kernel (bran, germ and endosperm) in the same proportion as the original grain. it has been processed to look l...
modified milk ingredients
    The different components of milk fat and milk solids that have been altered in processing, including: calcium-reduced skim milk, casein, casinates, cultured milk products, milk serum proteins, ult...
bleached enriched wheat flour
    A flour prepared by grinding wheat, removing its water content, treating it with a fda approved flour bleaching agent and fortifying it with vitamins and minerals such as niacin, ferrous sulfate, ...
high oleic sunflower oil
    Sunflower oil that has an increased amount of monounsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic fatty acid. h green tea a tea made from the leaves of the camellia sinensis plant, w ith a pale to ver...
raspberry juice concentrate
    Raspberry juice that has had part of its water removed. raspberry powder a powder formed from the drying of raspberries. raspberry puree crushed, ground raspberries that contains raspberry pulp an...
blueberry puree concentrate
    Crushed blueberries which have had some of their water removed. brazil nuts a large three-sided nut with an edible kernel, several of which grow inside a large woody capsule. brazil nuts grow in t...
hydrogenated vegetable oil
    Oils that are less susceptible to rancidity because they have had their double bonds replaced with hydrogen, similar to saturated fatty acids. the process also results in a more solid fat at room ...