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Глоссарий базовой компьютерной терминологии

agent based modeling
    A method of simulating the real world in which individual agents interact with their environment and each other to simulate real world behaviors and conditions. netlogo is good at agent based mode...
arti cial intelligence
    The sub eld of computer science that involves the creation of programs that attempt to do what was formerly believed to only be able to be done by humans.
big data
    The problem beginning in the 21st century of processing vast amounts of data coming at or refreshing at very high speed. for example satellite sensor data, city monitoring sensors, gene sequencing...
boot program
    The program run when the computer hardware is powered up. boot - to restart a computer as if the computer had been powered down regardless of whether it was on and running or not.
cloud storage
    Rather than the information being stored locally" on one`s own computer, the information is stored on distant machines accessible via the internet.
cluster computer
    Also known as a cluster is a supercomputer made up of many smaller computers such as pcs connected with very fast network hardware.
control structure
    Code or statement that changes the order of execution for instance an if-statement conditionally executes code while a loop may perform a section of code repeatedly. core - a sub-processor on a ch...
cpu intensive
    A program that spends most of its time running on the cpu with a disproportionately small amount of time waiting for data from memory.
customer base
    The set of loyal customers a company or other software supplier supports.
data intensive
    A program that spends most of its time waiting for data from memory rather than computing. sometimes called memory intensive.
external hard drive
    A disk that is a peripheral.
floating point number
    A number with a decimal in it like 3.141592653589. front-side bus - it is a connection between the cpu and fast components of your computer like ram and gpu (see the term bus). technically it is a...
functional abstraction
    Abstraction to what a section of code will do rather that the details of how it does it. a function de nition allows for abstracting the contained code to a simple call to a function.
graphics processing
    Image construction and manipulation.
hsb or hsv
    Stands for hue, saturation, brightness or value". it is a way of specifying a color by giving the amount of each of three contributing factors to make the color: hue is the color in the color whee...
machine instructions
    The instructions executed by a cpu. the bit level instructions of a computer.
meerkat
    A burrowing social mammal of the mongoose family found in southern africa. mega- - a pre x for a million, (106) as in a megabyte or megahertz.
netlogo
    An easy to use agent based modeling language and development environment based on the classic logo language
on chip
    Generally means the functionality is on the cpu chip or the chip under discussion. can refer to hardware as in he north bridge can now be found on chip" or refer to execution as in he data and i...
pairs programming
    A programming methodology that has two programmers set down at a single keyboard and display to program as a team e ort. producing more and better working code.
powers of two
    A number that is the product of two multiplied together many times. the kth power of two is denoted 2k. powers of two are very important in computing because k bits can be used to number 2k things...
scalable computing
    An application supported on an amount of hardware that automatically adjusts to the size of the demand thereby saving money by using less hardware when demand is light an d more when the demand is...
strongly typed
    A language is strongly typed if all type errors can be found at compile time.
system calls
    A programmatic interface to operating system features 8
usagi
    The japanese word for rabbit. usb - universal serial bus. a popular standard for creating a data path between computers and peripherals. it includes the capability of powering a device. more recen...