Глоссарий





Новости переводов

16 мая, 2024

Translating UMI-CMS based website

19 апреля, 2024

Translations in furniture production

07 февраля, 2024

Ghostwriting vs. Copywriting

30 января, 2024

Preparing a scientific article for publication in an electronic (online) journal

20 декабря, 2023

Translation and editing of drawings in CAD systems

10 декабря, 2023

About automatic speech recognition

30 ноября, 2023

Translation services for tunneling shields and tunnel construction technologies



Глоссарии и словари бюро переводов Фларус

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Глоссарий терминов коммунальных услуг

Глоссарий терминов для переводчиков текстов по обслуживанию городов, поселков, санитарно-технических предприятий, жилищно-коммунального хозяйства, городского транспорта, энергетических предприятий и сооружений внешнего благоустройства.



abnormal loss
    When total revenue fails to cover total cost. firms tend to abandon industries yielding abnormal losses; then, as supply falls, prices rise and normal profits return.
чрезмерный убыток;
regulatory reform
    A change in the way a regulatory agency operates or a change in regulation where the stated purpose is to improve performance on the part of the agency or its regulated industry. in any situation ...
system benefits charge
    A charge on a consumer’s bill from an electric distribution company to pay for the costs of certain public benefits such as low-income assistance and energy efficiency.
платеж на создание общественных благ;
reseller
    A company that purchases services from a supplier and markets those services to final customers - often including some value-added services. an example of a reseller would be a company that buys o... посредник;
cost-of-living index
    A comparison of present prices for a typical bundle of goods versus the prices during a base period.
rate survey
    A comparison of prices for a particular service across different firms.
обзор тарифных ставок;
conservationcostrecoverycharge
    A component added to an electricity bill to cover the costs of utility outlays that reduced the demand for electricity. conservation programs might include energy efficiency audits,weatherization ... плата за покрытие затрат по энергосбережению;
wheeling service
    A contracted service to allow a system to transmit power by using another system’s facilities in exchange for a payment of a wheeling charge.
услуга по передаче электроэнергии через сети посредника;
chain-weighted price index
    A cost-of-living index that takes changes in quantities of goods and services into consideration.
fixed-weight index
    A cost-of-living index with quantities of goods and services held constant.
индекс с постоянными весами;
punitive injunctions
    A court order or regulatory ruling that restricts or halts current activities. the sanction can have severe economic consequences for the offending party.
судебный запрет;
pareto optimal
    A definition of maximum economic welfare - such that no one can be made better off without someone else becoming worse off.
оптимальность по парето;
time deposits
    A deposit of money with a bank or other financial institution that requires notice before it can be withdrawn.
срочные депозиты;
retaildeposit
    A deposit of money with a retail bank, which tends to deal with individuals and small businesses.
розничный депозит;
ratchet effect
    A description of the human response to changes in welfare; i.e., a positive response to improvement and a negative one to diminishment. once a particular level of satisfaction is achieved, this es... инерционный эффект;
credit-rating
    A designation by a financial institution (such as standard and poor’s) regarding the credit-worthiness of a company or government organization issuing bonds.
кредитный рейтинг;
electric meter
    A device that measures the amount of electricity a customer uses. the primary types are energy meters (measures electricity use in kilowatt-hours), demand meters (also measures peak load), interva... электрический счетчик;
supply curve
    A diagram depicting the relation between price and quantity supplied; i.e., for a product with increasing opportunity costs, the higher the price, the greater the quantity producers are willing to... кривая предложения;
grid code
    A document that contains the minimum technical rules governing maintenance of network stability, security, and reliability and that is mandatory for all market participants. such documents are pre...
independent power facility
    A facility outside an electric utility’s rate base. depending on the law, it may be able to sell only wholesale power to utilities for resale. with liberalization or deregulation, these plants can... независимое генерирующее оборудование;
self-generation facility
    A facility that serves a particular retail customer’s needs, generally located on the customer’s premises. the facility itself may be owned directly by the customer or by a third party contracted ...
variable factor
    A factor of production whose quantity can be varied in the short run; e.g., labor and raw materials.
переменный фактор;
tone dialing
    A feature of touch?tone telephone that allows interactive services.
тональный набор;
transaction-oriented tariff
    A fee for transmission of electricity on the basis of entry point (source) of service and exit point under a contract; also called point-to-point tariff.
access charge
  1. A fee levied for connection to a network that permits access to a service or product; e.g., the charge for use of a utility’s transmission or distribution system.

  2. The charge paid by...
transition charge
    A fee that customers who purchase generation services from an alternative electric supplier pay to their local utility for distribution services. this allows the utility to recover its stranded co... плата за транзит;
dominant firm
    A firm able to act relatively independently of its competitors in terms of pricing or output decisions. dominance has to be assessed within the context of the degree of competition in a relevant m...
regulatedsupplier
    A firm that is subject to regulation.
регулируемый поставщик;
price floor
    A fixed minimum price, set by an organization (or government agency) capable of enforcing the price control.
нижний предел цены;
flowgate
    A flowgate is a specified line, set of lines, or combination of lines and other transmission assets that link two nodes (busses) in the power system over which power flows.
flowgate price
    A flowgate price corresponds to the associated cost of using the flowgate to move power between two nodes in the system when the flowgate is being used to capacity. the associated cost of using th...
earnings sharing
    A form of hybrid regulation. with this mechanism, the regulator allows the operator to keep some portion of the earnings it receives from selling the product or service and requires the operator t... метод распределения доходов;
regulation by contract
    A form of regulation in which the regulatory authority (who could be a mayor or a regulatory commission) monitors and enforces a license. in contrast to the anglo-american tradition of independent...
cost-of service regulation
    A form of regulation that determines prices based on the costs of serving different customers and producing different services. the procedure is sometimes criticized for not providing strong incen... метод регулирования по стоимости обслуживания;
cogenerator
    A generator that, while producing products (heating services or chilled water) also produces electricity as a by-product.
когенератор;
load centers
    A geographical area where large amounts of power are demanded by end users.
центры нагрузки;
regulatory agency
    A government agency that oversees and sets rules for a specified type of business in a sector.
captured agency
    A government agency unduly influenced by economic interest groups directly affected by its decisions. the resulting public policies favor special interests rather than the general public interest.... «захваченный государственный орган»;
revenue-neutralpolicies
    A government policy that does not affect the budget inasmuch as any reduction in revenue is met by an equivalent reduction in expenditures.
политика нейтральной доходности;
total cost curve
    A graph depicting the total cost of producing each level of output per time period.
кривая совокупных издержек;
total revenue curve
    A graph depicting total revenue earned from the sale of the product as a function of different levels of output.
кривая совокупной выручки;
long-run average cost curve
    A graph of the minimum unit cost of production at each level of output while allowing plant size to vary.
кривая долгосрочных средних издержек;
market supply curve
    A graph showing the horizontal summation of all individual supply curves.
кривая рыночного предложения;
bilateral contract
    A legal commitment for one party to purchase and another party to sell; for example, a direct contract between a power producer and a user or broker who is outside a centralized power pool.
двусторонний контракт;
provider of last resort
    A legal obligation of utilities to provide service to customers denied service by others.
гарантирующий поставщик;
price cap
    A legally established maximum price that is imposed on a product or service. generally, this price is below the one that would otherwise be charged by the supplier (for example, a monopolist). a p... предельная цена;
concessional terms
  1. A loan at more favorable terms than is available commercially. a large proportion of aid to developing countries takes the form of loans at concessional terms.

  2. Льготные условия
льготные условия;
official exchange rate
    A local currency’s official rate of exchange for a foreign currency.
официальный обменный курс;
authorized payment location
    A location other than the utility business office where bills can be paid.
minimum price
    A lower limit on price set by government. if set too high, the result is significant excess supply, resulting in output that is not purchased by consumers and often leading to some form of product... минимальная цена;
price stability
    A macroeconomic objective involving a low inflation rate.
стабильность цен;
exchange economy
    A market characterized by trade between consumers.
экономика обмена;
futures market
  1. A market of contracts for delivery of commodities at a specified future time and price; price is often based on an auction or market basis. a futures market is generally a standardized, exchan...
bilateral monopoly
    A market that has only one seller (monopolist) and only one buyer (monopsonist).
contestable market
    A market with low sunk costs: entry costs are low or can be recovered on exit (by salvaging the equipment and reselling or re-using it). see also:theory of contestable markets
self-service wheeling
    A means of accounting for generation produced by a utility that owns more than one facility. when excess electricity at one site is used at another, the utility is given billing credit for the exc...
standard of living
  1. A measure of economic welfare; e.g., real per capita income.

  2. Уровень жизни
уровень жизни;
interest cover
  1. A measure of how many times over a company can pay its interest due from the level of profit being earned (net profit before interest and taxes divided by interest paid; the higher the resulti...
output per worker
    A measure of productivity calculated by dividing the total output by the number of workers.
economic welfare
    A measure of the ways an economic system benefits its participants. for example, real per capita standard of living would be one index of economic welfare. the welfare generated by a project would... экономическое благосостояние;
short-term liquidity ratios
    A measurement of how well a company is managing its funds and can meet its short-term financial obligations.
коэффициент краткосрочной ликвидности;
net asset turnover ratio
    A measurement of the ability of management to use a firm’s net assets to generate sales revenue, calculated as sales revenue divided by capital employed. too high a number may indicate too little ... коэффициент оборачиваемости чистых активов;
hybrid regulatory systems
    A mixture of different types of incentive plans-for example, cost of service over a range of returns, but price caps over other ranges. alternatively, the use of yardstick comparisons in creating ... смешанные системы регулирования;
bertrand model
    A model of oligopoly featuring firms producing a homogeneous good and deciding simultaneously and separately on the price to charge.
модель бертрана;
discriminating monopoly
    A monopoly supplier that charges different prices to different customer groups, based on different price elasticities. see price discrimination.
дискриминирующая монополия;
municipalization
    A municipality’s assumption of responsibility for supplying utility service to its residents. in the case of electricity, the city could either generate and distribute power or purchase it wholesa... муниципализация;
niche market
    A narrow market segment with specialized needs met by supplies with unique capabilities. as firms gain experience, they may expand beyond the niche.
рыночная ниша;
transition period
    A number of years deemed adequate for allowing a formerly regulated firm the opportunity to recover stranded costs through the use of a transition charge.
переходный период;
interstate pipeline
    A pipeline that transports natural gas across state boundaries. in the u.s. such pipelines are subject to ferc jurisdiction under the u.s. natural gas act.
межштатный трубопровод;
social policy
    A policy addressing social issues, such as poverty alleviation, education, and access to infrastructure. such policies might focus on meeting demands for social justice, including income redistrib... социальная политика;
price cap formula
    A precise expression denoting the constraint facing a firm over the period of a price control. an example of a simple version of the formula would be rpi-x+k+q, where the terms reflect adjustments...
gini coefficients
    A precise way to measure the position of a lorenz curve, characterizing the degree of inequality across components.
коэффициент джини;
price band
    A price range that has minimum and maximum prices set.
ценовой диапазон;
market-based price
    A price set by individual decisions among buyers and sellers in a competitive market.
рыночная цена;
fixed input
    A production factor that cannot be varied in the short run.
постоянный фактор производства;
x-factor
    A productivity adjustment in a price cap formula, used to adjust price in line with a firm’s expected productivity improvements. determining the appropriate x-factor can be highly contentious, sin... x-фактор (икс-фактор);
abnormal profit
    A profit beyond that needed for the firm to continue production. when abnormal or supernormal profits persist, the industry attracts new firms, supplies increase, prices fall, and normal profits r... сверхприбыль;




Глоссарий терминов коммунальных услуг


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