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Глоссарий терминов в нанотехнологиях

Отличительной особенностью нанотехнологий является их междисциплинарный характер - они объединяют физику, химию, биологию и другие научные дисциплины. В современном мире нанотехнологии играют все более важную роль в различных сферах науки и техники. Они открывают новые возможности для создания инновационных материалов, устройств и систем, которые могут применяться в медицине, электронике, энергетике и других отраслях.

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    2d material
      A single layer of atoms of a crystalline solid that generally possesses different properties from their 3d counterparts (e.g., graphene).
    3d printing
      A top-down method of printing where polymers are deposited layer by layer to produce a 3d structure.
    alkali metals
      A group of soft, very reactive elements that includes lithium, sodium, and potassium.
    щелочные металлы;
    amino acids
    1. Simple organic compounds composed of carboxyl (-co2–) and amino (-nh3+) groups that are the fundamental building blocks of proteins.

    2. Amino acids are building blocks that help facili...
    atomic force microscope (afm)
      A scanning probe microscopy instrument capable of revealing the structure of samples. the afm uses a sharp metal tip positioned over a conducting or non-conducting substrate and the surface topogr... атомно-силовой микроскоп (асм);
    atomic layer deposition (ald)
      A technique used to deposit thin-films one atomic layer at a time using self-limiting gas phase reactions.
    beam pen lithography (bpl)
      A cantilever-free scanning probe technique based on polymer pen lithography, where patterning is accomplished by passing light through small apertures at the tips of pens in a two-dimensional tip ...
      The study of the structure and function of biological substances to develop man-made systems that mimic natural ones; imitating, copying, or learning from biological systems to create new material... биомиметика;
    block copolymers
      Self-assembled material composed of long sequences of “blocks” of the same monomer unit, covalently bound to sequences of unlike type.
    bottom-up assembly
      A methodology by which larger structures are made by assembling many smaller ones (e.g., when nanoparticle building blocks are brought together to create larger assemblies). see also top-down asse...
    brownian motion
      The movement of small objects in solution owing to thermal fluctuations.
    броуновское движение;
      See fullerene.
    cell adhesion
      The bonding of cells to surfaces or to other cells. protein molecules at the surface of cells are generally the glue involved in cell adhesion.
    cell recognition
      The process by which a cell in a multicellular organism interprets its surroundings.
    computational chemistry
      A branch of theoretical chemistry with the goal of creating computer programs to calculate the properties of molecules (such as total energy, dipole moment, and vibrational frequencies) and to app...
      A technology in molecular biology that utilizes the cas9 enzyme’s affinity to short palindromic sequences of dna along with a guiding rna sequence to target and edit genes within organisms.
      A polymer with multiple branches. dendrimers are synthetic 3-d macromolecular structures that interact with cells, enabling scientists to probe, diagnose, treat, or manipulate cells on the nanosca...
    dip-pen nanolithography (dpn)
      A method for nanoscale patterning of surfaces by the transfer of a material from the tip of an atomic force microscope onto the surface. developed by professor chad a. mirkin, the dpn allows resea...
    dna bricks
      A lego-like dna block that is used in dna technology to build 2d and 3d nanostructures.
    dna cleavage
      The cutting or breaking of a dna strand.
    dna dendron
      A single stranded dna molecule that branches into several dna strands, mimicking the high density of dna on an sna surface.
    dna origami
      A technique in dna nanotechnology that uses the specificity of dna interactions to fold dna scaffolds into complex structures in a facile manner.
    dna recognition
      The ability of one dna molecule to “recognize” and attach to another molecule that has a complementary shape.
    dna replication
      The process of making copies of dna strands prior to cell division using existing dna as a template for the newly created strands.
    dna structures
      Dna frameworks occurring in nature: i.e., double helix, cruciforms, left-handed dna, multistranded structures. also, microarrays of small dots of dna on surfaces.
    drug delivery
      The use of physical, chemical, and biological components to deliver controlled amounts of a therapeutic agent.
    dynamic light scattering (dls)
      A characterization technique used to determine the size of nanoscale materials in a solution by analyzing the scattering intensity of a laser over time.
    electrochemical methods
      Experimental methods used to study the physical and chemical phenomena associated with electron transfer at the interface of an electrode and a solution. electrochemical methods are used to obtain...
    electrochemical properties
      The characteristics of materials that occur when a) an electric current is passed through a material and produces chemical changes and b) when a chemical reaction is used to produce an electric cu...
    electroluminescence (el)
      The light produced by some materials — mainly semiconductors — when exposed to an electric field. in this process, the electric field excites electrons in the material, which then emit the excess ...
    electron diffraction
      A surface science technique used to examine solids by firing a beam of electrons at a sample and observing the electron deflection from the sample’s atomic nuclei.
    electron equivalents (ees)
      A class of programmable atom equivalent that is much smaller than traditional paes. the small size allows these materials to diffuse throughout the crystalline assemblies, much like classical elec...
    electron transfer
      The passage of an electron from one constituent of a system to another, as from one molecule or ion to another. applications include photography, xerography, and dye-sensitized injection solar cel...
    electron transport
      The manipulation of individual electrons. nanolithography techniques allow single electrons to be transported at very low temperatures in specially designed circuits.
    electron tunneling
      The passage of electrons through a barrier that, according to the principles of classical mechanics, cannot be breached. an example of electron tunneling is the passage of an electron through a th...
      The study of the influence of an electric field on the optical properties of matter — especially in crystalline form — such as transmission, emission, and absorption of light. also known as optoel...
    excited states
      In quantum mechanics, all levels of energy above the lowest or ground state (also known as equilibrium). excited states are ranked in order of increasing energy; that is, the second excited state ...
      Crystalline substances that have a permanent spontaneous electric polarization (electric dipole moment per cubic centimeter) that can be reversed by an electric field.
      A fluid in which fine particles of iron, magnetite or cobalt are suspended, typically in an oil. a ferrofluid is superparamagnetic and can create liquid seals held in position by magnetic fields. ...
    ferromagnetic materials
    1. Substances, including a number of crystalline materials, that are characterized by a possible permanent magnetization.

    2. Materials, such as iron, cobalt, and nickel, which have an abn... ферромагнитные материалы;
    field effect
      The local change from the normal value produced by an electric field in the charge-carrier concentration of a semiconductor.
    field emission
      The emission of electrons from the surface of a metallic conductor into a vacuum (or into an insulator) under influence of a strong electric field. in field emission, electrons penetrate through t...
    fluorescence spectroscopy
      A technique to measure the interaction of radiant energy with matter by passing emitted fluorescent light through a monochromator to record the fluorescence emission spectrum.
    fluorescent probe
      A stain used for tagging and labeling biological cells to detect structures, molecules, or proteins within the cell. also single-stranded pieces of dna, with enzymatically incorporated fluorescent...
    forced intercalation (fit) aptamer
      An oligonucleotide which contains a dye that, upon binding to a target molecule, generates an enhanced and detectable fluorescence readout.
    gas-phase reactions
      A class of chemical reactions that occur in a single gaseous phase based on the physical state of the substances present. examples include the combination of common household gas and oxygen to pro...
    gene expression
    1. The transcription, translation, and phenotypic manifestation of a gene.

    2. Production of proteins from the information contained in dna through the processes of transcription and trans... экспрессия генов;
    gene sequencing
      Technology used to interpret the sequence of the nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) in a dna sample from bands on an x-ray film image. scientists use a combination of lasers, hi...
    gene technology
      Techniques that allow experimenters to manipulate specific genes within an organism and determine the effect this has on the functioning of the organism.
    1. The study of the genetic content of organisms.

    2. The study and comparison of entire genomes, including the complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their... геномика;
      A four-guanine tetrad type of dna secondary structure that forms with sequences rich in guanine.
      An allotrope of carbon where a single sheet of carbons can be formed in a honeycomb-like lattice nanostructure.
    green chemistry
      The use of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate substances hazardous to human health or the environment, creating no waste or generating only benign waste.
    heterogeneous catalysis
      A chemical process in which the catalyst and the reactant are present in separate phases. usually the catalyst is a solid, the reactants and products are in gaseous or liquid phases, and the catal...
    hierarchical assembly
      A controlled means of assembly where individual components have varying levels of assembly affinity to allow for the stepwise growth of a structure. this allows for the formation of complex materi...
    high throughput screening (hts)
      An assortment of technologies used to identify small molecules. hts is often used in drug development to screen potential sources for novel molecules. it is capable of processing a wide variety of...
    high-area rapid printing (harp)
      A fast and high-throughput form of 3d printing that employs a mobile liquid interface to manufacture large and mechanically robust parts. uv light cures a liquid resin into hardened plastic.
    homogeneous catalysis
      A process in which a catalyst is in the same phase — usually a gas or liquid — as the reactant. catalysis of the transformation of organic molecules by acids or bases is one of the most widespread...
      A network of polymers that absorb water to produce well-defined structures.
    hydrogen bonding
      The interaction of a hydrogen atom with another atom, influencing the physical properties and three-dimensional structure of a chemical substance. hydrogen bonding generally occurs between atoms o...
    hydrophilic effect
      Having an affinity for, attracting, adsorbing, or absorbing water. hydrophilic effect occurs when a liquid comes in contact with another phase — typically a solid substrate, if it attracts the liq...
    hydrophobic effect
      Lacking an affinity for, repelling, or failing to adsorb or absorb water. hydrophobic effect occurs when a liquid comes in contact with another phase — typically a solid substrate, if it exerts a ...
    infrared (ir) spectroscopy
      A technique in which infrared light is passed through matter and some of the light is absorbed by inciting molecular vibration. the difference between the incident and the emitted radiation reveal...
    ion channel
      A protein-coated pore in a cell membrane that selectively regulates the diffusion of ions into and out of the cell, allowing only certain ion species to pass through the membrane.
    ion conductors
      The discharge of charged particles in a fluid electrolyte to conduct an electrical current.
      In electronics, the interface between two different types of materials within diodes, transistors, and other semiconductor devices.
    kirkendall effect
      The movement of the interface between two metals caused by a variation in the diffusion rates of the metals.
    lab-on-a-chip devices
      Miniaturized analytical systems that integrate a chemical laboratory on a chip. lab-on-a-chip technology enables portable devices for point-of-care (or on-site) medical diagnostics and environment...
    langmuir-blodgett (lb) films
      Ultrathin films (monolayers and isolated molecular layers) created by nanofabrication. an lb-film can consist of a single layer or many, up to a depth of several visible-light wavelengths. the ter...
    led (light-emitting diode)
      A semiconductor device that converts electrical energy into electromagnetic radiation. the led emits light of a particular frequency (hence a particular color) depending on the physical characteri...
      A closed, spherical bilayer of amphiphilic molecules commonly used as delivery vessels in nanomedicine.
    липосома; полые липосомы;
    liquid phase separation
      A method of extracting one liquid from another, generally through the use of solvents.
    materials genome
      All possible combinations of elements that can be synthesized and used. akin to the biological genome, or all of the genetic information of an organism.
      An array of millions to billions of nanomaterials with a gradient of sizes and compositions spatially encoded on a chip that are prepared via high-throughput methods.
    metal organic framework (mof)
      A class of compounds consisting of metal ions that are coordinated to organic ligands to form porous, crystalline structures with applications in catalysis, water remediation, and gas storage.
    microcontact printing
      A technique that uses a silicone stamp to deposit molecules on surfaces in patterns with microscale features.

    Глоссарий терминов в нанотехнологиях

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