Глоссарий

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Proof of authority(poa)

Глоссарий по криптовалютам и блокчейну
    A proof of authority is a consensus mechanism in a private blockchain which essentially gives one client(or a specific number of clients) with one particular private key the right to make all of the blocks in the blockchain




Proof, английский
  1. Any fact or evidence that leads to a judgment of the court

  2. A printed sample of work to be checked for errors in text, positioning or quality of colour reproduction.

  3. Доказательство

  4. The trial of the quality of arms, ammunition, &c., before their reception for service. guns are proved by various examinations, and by the firing of prescribed charges; powder by examinations, and by carefully measured firings from each batch.

  5. [1] to test a gun by firing it. [2] an arbitrary benchmark used by the distillery industry to rate the strength of an alcoholic liquor against a standard of 100 (defined as representing 50 percent alcohol by volume).


Proof, английский

Proof battleships, английский

Proof container, английский
  1. Коробка для безопасного уничтожения острых медицинских отходов (кбу) предназначена для сбора и уничтожения острых предметов и инструментария; представляет собой непрокалываемую ёмкость, в которую помещают шприцы и иглы сразу после их использования для временного хранения до уничтожения.

  2. Контейнер для хранения отработанных острых предметов и инструментария см. также safety box (контейнер безопасности).


Proof of, английский

Proof of address, английский

Proof of age, identity, citizenship or legal residence status, английский
    Подтверждение возраста, личности, гражданства или законного права на жительства


Proof of delivery, английский

Proof of knowledge, английский

Proof of novelty, английский
    Доказательство новизны (изобретения)


Proof of service, английский
    A form filed with the court that proves that court papers were properly delivered to someone


Proof of stake, английский
    Proof-of-stake (pos) is a method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. while the proof-of-work (pow) method asks users to repeatedly run hashing algorithms or other client puzzles, to validate electronic transactions, proof-of-stake asks users to prove ownership of a certain amount of currency (their “stake” in the currency). peercoin was the first cryptocurrency to launch using proof-of-stake. other prominent implementations are found in bitshares, nxt, blackcoin, nushares/nubits and qora. ethereum has planned a hard fork transition from pow to pos consensus. decred hybridizes pow with pos and combines elements of both in an attempt to garner the benefits of the two systems and create a more robust notion of consensus. with proof of work, the probability of mining a block depends on the work done by the miner (e.g. cpu/gpu cycles spent checking hashes). in the case of bitcoin, with proof of stake, the resource that’s compared is the amount of bitcoin a miner holds – someone holding 1% of the bitcoin can mine 1% of the “proof of stake blocks”. instead of sacrificing energy to mine a block, a user must prove they own a certain amount of the cryptocurrency to generate a block. the more stake you own, the more likely you are to generate a block. in theory, this should prevent users from creating forks because it will devalue their stake and it should save a lot of energy. proof of stake sounds like a good idea, but ironically, there is the “nothing at stake” problem. since mining bitcoins is costly, it is not smart to waste your energy on a fork that won’t earn you any money, however with proof of stake, it is free to mine a fork


Proof of work, английский
  1. Pow system/protocol/function is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually meaning processing time by a computer. the concept may have been first presented by cynthia dwork and moni naor in a 1993 journal. the term “proof of work” was first coined and formalized in a 1999 paper by markus jakobsson and ari juels. a key feature of these schemes is their asymmetry: the work must be moderately hard (but feasible) on the requester side but easy to check for the service provider. this idea is also known as a cpu cost function, client puzzle, computational puzzle or cpu pricing function

  2. One important property of a block in bitcoin, ethereum and many other crypto-ledgers is that the hash of the block must be smaller than some target value. the reason this is necessary is that in a decentralized system anyone can produce blocks, so in order to prevent the network from being flooded with blocks, and to provide a way of measuring how much consensus there is behind a particular version of the blockchain, it must in some way be hard to produce a block. because hashes are pseudorandom, finding a block whose hash is less than takes an average of 4.3 billion attempts. in all such systems, the target value self-adjusts so that on average one node in the network finds a block every n minutes (eg. n = 10 for bitcoin and 1 for ethereum).


Proof of work nonce, английский
    A meaningless value in a block which can be adjusted in order to try to satisfy the proof of work condition


Proof plot, английский

Proof plotter, английский

Proof stress, английский
  1. Расчетное напряжение (с учетом запаса прочности)

  2. A stress, either compression or tension, which is applied to a material to determine the magnitude required to produce a specified permanent deformation usually specified as a percentage of the original length.


Proof timber, английский
    In naval architecture, an imaginary timber, expressed by vertical lines in the sheer-draught, to prove the fairness of the body.


Proof-correction symbol, английский
    Корректурный знак определенный знак, вставляемый в сверстанное издание в процессе корректурной работы. предназначен для исправления ошибок и устранения технических неисправностей. другой термин correction mark, correction sign, readerхs mark


Proof-of-concept model, английский
    Модель для подтверждения правильности использованных принципов


Blockchain, английский
  1. A blockchain is a type of distributed ledger, comprised of unchangable, digitally recorded data in packages called blocks (rather like collating them on to a single sheet of paper). each block is then ‘chained’ to the next block, using a cryptographic signature. this allows block chains to be used like a ledger, which can be shared and accessed by anyone with the appropriate permissions.

  2. Shared, trusted, public ledger of transactions, that everyone can inspect but which no single user controls. it is a cryptographed, secure, tamper resistant distributed database. it solves a complex mathematical problem to exist. a blockchain is a perfect place to store value, identities, agreements, property rights, credentials, etc. once you put something like a bitcoin into it, it will stay there forever. it is decentralized, disintermediated, cheap and censorship resistant. applications of blockchain: bitcoin (cryptocurrency), namecoin (wants to replace the entire dns system of the internet), or sia (a decentralized cloud storage), ethereum (turing complete virtual machine where you can run any smart contract); any centralized service like ebay, dropbox can potentially be built in a decentralized way using blockchain technology, considerably lowering transaction costs


Essentially, английский
  1. По существу; главным образом см. substantially

  2. No существу; главным образом


Particular, английский
    A частный; конкретный grammar partitioned a разделённый на части sequence 1 одна из базовых операций компьютерной обработки текстов; в каче- стве данных берутся текст либо сегмент текста, грамматика и цель разбора, а на выходе получается удовлетворяющее цели множество значений категориальной отнесённости сегментов в виде, например, дерева разбора. 2 применяется запоминание также и гипотез, выдвигаемых при разбо- ре, и результатов их проверки – м. кэй. 3 используется, в частности, для разбора арифметических выражений. partitioning n членение sentence ~ членение предложений (напр., при переводе )


Public blockchains, английский
    A public blockchain is a blockchain that anyone in the world can read, anyone in the world can send transactions to and expect to see them included if they are valid, and anyone in the world can participate in the consensus process – the process for determining what blocks get added to the chain and what the current state is. as a substitute for centralized or quasi-centralized trust, public blockchains are secured by crypto economics – the combination of economic incentives and cryptographic verification using mechanisms such as proof of work or proof of stake, following a general principle that the degree to which someone can have an influence in the consensus process is proportional to the quantity of economic resources that they can bring to bear. these blockchains are generally considered to be “fully decentralized”


Turing completeness, английский
    A machine is turing complete if it can perform any calculation that any other programmable computer is capable of. all modern computers are turing-complete in this sense. the ethereum virtual machine (evm) which runs on the ethereum blockchain is turing complete. thus it can process any “computable function”. it is, in short, able to do what you could do with any conventional computer and programming language