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Глоссарии и словари бюро переводов Фларус

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Глоссарий по криптовалютам и блокчейну

agreement ledger
    An agreement ledger is distributed ledger used by two or more parties to negotiate and reach agreement.
attestation ledger
    A distributed ledger providing a durable record of agreements, commitments or statements, providing evidence (attestation) that these agreements, commitments or statements were made.
bitcoin (lowercase)
    The specific collection of technologies used by bitcoin’s ledger, a particular solution. note that the currency is itself one of these technologies, as it provides the miners with the incentive to...
bitcoin (uppercase)
    The well known cryptocurrency, based on the proof-of-work blockchain.
block height
    Block height refers to the number of blocks connected together in the block chain. for example, height 0, would be the very first block, which is also called the genesis block.
block reward
  1. The reward given to a miner which has successfully hashed a transaction block. block rewards can be a mixture of coins and transaction fees, depending on the policy used by the cryptocurrency ...
  1. A blockchain is a type of distributed ledger, comprised of unchangable, digitally recorded data in packages called blocks (rather like collating them on to a single sheet of paper). each block...
central ledger
    A central ledger refers to a ledger maintained by a central agency.
consensus point
    A point – either in time, or defined in terms of a set number or volume of records to be added to the ledger – where peers meet to agree the state of the ledger.
consensus process
    The process a group of peers responsible for maintaining a distributed ledger use to reach consensus on the ledger’s contents.
    A form of digital currency based on mathematics, where encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds. furthermore, cryptocurrencie...
digital commodity
    A digital commodity is a scarce, electronically transferrable, intangible, with a market value.
digital identity
    A digital identity is an online or networked identity adopted or claimed in cyberspace by an individual, organization, or electronic device.
distributed ledger
    Distributed ledgers are a type of database that are spread across multiple sites, countries or institutions. records are stored one after the other in a continuous ledger. distributed ledger data ...
double spend
  1. Double spend refers to a scenario, in the bitcoin network, where someone tries to send a bitcoin transaction to two different recipients at the same time. however, once a bitcoin transaction i...
genesis block
  1. The very first block in a block chain.

  2. The very first block in the block chain
    The number of hashes that can be performed by a bitcoin miner in a given period of time (usually a second).
initial coin offering (ico)
    An initial coin offering (also called an ico) is an event in which a new cryptocurrency sells advance tokens from its overall coinbase, in exchange for upfront capital. icos are frequently used fo...
  1. An append-only record store, where records are immutable and may hold more general information than financial records.

  2. Программа финансового учета

  3. The part of an accounti... лежень; ;
    A peer-to-peer cryptocurrency based on the scrypt proof-of-work network. sometimes referred to as the silver of bitcoin`s gold.
multi signature
    Multi-signature (multisig) addresses allow multiple parties to require more than one key to authorize a transaction. the needed number of signatures is agreed at the creation of the address. multi...
off-ledger currency
    A currency minted off-ledger and used on-ledger. an example of this would be using distributed ledgers to manage a national currency.
on-ledger currency
    A currency minted on-ledger and used on-ledger. an example of this would be the cryptocurrency, bitcoin.
permissioned ledger
    A permissioned ledger is a ledger where actors must have permission to access the ledger. permissioned ledgers may have one or many owners. when a new record is added, the ledger’s integrity is ch...
private currency
    A currency issued by a private individual or firm, typically secured against uninsured assets.
    An alternative to the proof-of-work system, in which your existing stake in a cryptocurrency (the amount of that currency that you hold) is used to calculate the amount of that currency that you c...
    A system that ties mining capability to computational power. blocks must be hashed, which is in itself an easy computational process, but an additional variable is added to the hashing process to ...
replicated ledger
    A ledger with one master (authoritative) copy of the data, and many slave (non-authoritative) copies.
  1. An alternative proof of work system to sha-256, designed to be particularly friendly to cpu and gpu miners, while offering little advantage to asic miners.

  2. Крип­то­гра­фи­че­ский ал...
sha 256
    The cryptographic function used as the basis for bitcoin’s proof of work system.
smart contracts
  1. Smart contracts are contracts whose terms are recorded in a computer language instead of legal language. smart contracts can be automatically executed by a computing system, such as a suitable...
tokenless ledger
    A tokenless ledger refers to a distributed ledger that doesn’t require a native currency to operate.
transaction block
    A collection of transactions on the bitcoin network, gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain.
transaction fee
  1. A small fee imposed on some transactions sent across the bitcoin network. the transaction fee is awarded to the miner that successfully hashes the block containing the relevant transaction.
unpermissioned ledgers
    Unpermissioned ledgers such as bitcoin have no single owner — indeed, they cannot be owned. the purpose of an unpermissioned ledger is to allow anyone to contribute data to the ledger and for ever...
bitcoin atm
    A cash point where people can trade fiat currency and bitcoins
light node
    A computer on a blockchain network that only verifies a limited number of transactions relevant to its dealings, making use of the simplified payment verification (spv) mode
51% attack
    A condition in which more than half the computing power of a cryptocurrency network is controlled by a single malicious miner or group of miners. if he controls 51% of the network that makes him t...
consortium blockchains
    A consortium blockchain is a blockchain where the consensus process is controlled by a pre-selected set of nodes; for example, one might imagine a consortium of 15 financial institutions, each of ...
private blockchains
    A fully private blockchain is a blockchain where write permissions are kept centralized to one organization. read permissions may be public or restricted to an arbitrary extent. likely application...
consensus (general)
    A fundamental problem in distributed computing is to achieve overall system reliability in the presence of a number of faulty processes. this often requires processes to agree on some data value t...
    A hardfork is a change to the blockchain protocol that makes previously invalid blocks/transactions valid, and therefore requires all users to upgrade their clients. the most recent example of a h...
turing completeness
    A machine is turing complete if it can perform any calculation that any other programmable computer is capable of. all modern computers are turing-complete in this sense. the ethereum virtual mach...
proof of authority(poa)
    A proof of authority is a consensus mechanism in a private blockchain which essentially gives one client(or a specific number of clients) with one particular private key the right to make all of t...
public blockchains
    A public blockchain is a blockchain that anyone in the world can read, anyone in the world can send transactions to and expect to see them included if they are valid, and anyone in the world can p...
  1. A second blockchain used by developers for testing new versions of client software without putting real value at risk

  2. Те­сто­вая це­поч­ка бло­ков тран­зак­ций. ис­поль­зу­ет­ся раз...
    A softfork is a change to the bitcoin protocol wherein only previously valid blocks/transactions are made invalid. since old nodes will recognize the new blocks as valid, a softfork is backward-co...
    Altcoin is an abbreviation of “bitcoin alternative”. currently, the majority of altcoins are forks of bitcoin with usually minor changes to the proof of work (pow) algorithm of the bitcoin blockch...
block explorer
    An online tool for exploring the blockchain of a particular cryptocurrency, where you can watch and follow live all the transactions happening on the blockchain. block explorers can serve as block...
node (full node)
    Any computer that connects to the blockchain network is called a node. nodes that fully enforce all of the rules of the blockchain (i.e., bitcoin) are called full nodes. most nodes on the network ...
fiat currency
    Any money declared by a government to be to be valid for meeting a financial obligation, like usd or eur
    Are blockchains that are interoperable with each other and with bitcoin, avoiding liquidity shortages, market fluctuations, fragmentation, security breaches and outright fraud associated with alte...
chain linking
    Chain linking is the process of connecting two blockchains with each other, thus allowing transactions between the chains to take place. this will allow blockchains like bitcoin to communicate wit...
block (on the bitcoin blockchain)
    Data is permanently recorded in the bitcoin network through files called blocks. a block is a record of some or all of the most recent bitcoin transactions that have not yet been recorded in any p...
consensus (bitcoin’s process consensus)
    Developers suggest bitcoin improvements/modifications, small or big, proposals on github, bitcointalk, reddit, mailing lists, etc. discussion on this level is critical to enable smooth runtime con...
double spending
    Double-spending is the result of successfully spending some money more than once. bitcoin is the first to implemented a solution in early 2009 which protects against double spending by verifying e...
  1. Ethereum is an open software platform based on blockchain technology that enables developers to write smart contracts and build and deploy decentralized applications(dapps). the native token o...
dapp (decentralized application)
    For an application to be considered a dapp or decentralized application it must meet the following criteria (1) application must be completely open-source, it must operate autonomously, and with n...
daos (decentralized autonomous organization)
    Fully automated business entity (fab), or distributed autonomous corporation/company (dac) is a decentralized network of narrow-ai autonomous agents which perform an output-maximizing production f...
  1. Is a cryptocurrency that runs on a (1) global peer to peer network, is (2) decentralised (no single entity can control it), it’s (3) open source (wallet & transaction verification), (4) bypass...
sha (secure hash algorithm)
    Is a family of cryptographic hash functions published by the national institute of standards and technology (nist) as a u.s. federal information processing standard (fips). sha256 is an algorithm ...
satoshi nakamoto
    Is a person or group of people who created the bitcoin protocol and reference software, bitcoin core (formerly known as bitcoin-qt). in 2008, nakamoto published a paper on the cryptography mailing...
    Is a proof-of-work system used to limit email spam and denial-of-service attacks, and more recently has become known for its use in bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) as part of the mining algor...
cryptographic hash function
    Ithe cryptographic hash function is a mathematical algorithm that takes a particular input which can be any kind of digital data be it a password or jpeg file and produces a single fixed length ou... криптографическая хеш-функция;
transaction fees (bitcoin)
    May be included with any transfer of bitcoins from one address to another. at the moment, many transactions are typically processed in a way where no fee is expected at all, but for transactions w...
mining (bitcoin)
    Mining is the process of adding transaction records to bitcoin’s public ledger of past transactions or blockchain. this ledger of past transactions is called the blockchain as it is a chain of blo...
proof of work
  1. Pow system/protocol/function is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usu...
proof of stake
    Proof-of-stake (pos) is a method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. while the proof-of-work (pow) method asks users to repeatedly run hashing algor...
ring signature
    Ring signature is a cryptographic technology that could provide a decent level of anonymisation on a blockchain. ring signatures make sure individual transaction outputs on the blockchain can’t be...
    Smart contracts on the blockchain can not access the outside network on their own. therefore oracles sit between a smart contract and the external world, providing the data needed by the smart con...
  1. Solidity is a programming language designed for developing smart contracts. its syntax is similar to that of javascript, and it is intended to compile into bytecode for the ethereum virtual ma... монолитность; твердость;
spv(simplified payment verification) client
    Spv clients are bitcoin lightweight clients which do not download and store the whole blockchain locally. these wallets provide a way to verify payments without having to download the complete blo...
state channel
    State channels are interactions which get conducted off the blockchain without significantly increasing the risk of any participant. moving these interactions off of the chain without requiring an...
merkle tree
    The basic idea behind merkle tree is to have some piece of data that is linking to another. you can do this by linking things together with a cryptographic hash. the content itself can be used to ...
    The interplanetary file system (ipfs) is a hypermedia distribution protocol, addressed by content and identities. ipfs enables the creation of completely distributed applications. it aims to make ...
lightning network
    The lightning network is a decentralized network using smart contract functionality on the blockchain to enable instant payments across a network of participants. the lightning network will allow ...
    The smallest unit of bitcoin, equal to 0.00000001 btc

Глоссарий по криптовалютам и блокчейну

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