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Глоссарий рыболовных терминов в рыбной промышленности

Глоссарий основан на терминах, часто используемых в рыболовстве, рыбной промышленности, рыбацком жаргоне, рыбалке, а также терминах, которые появляются в учебных программах по рыбному хозяйству.



ecosystem-based management (ebm)
    A broader more comprehensive management approach that takes into account the interaction of ecological, economic, cultural, and regulatory factors impacting the overall health of an ecosystem. spe... экосистемное управление (ebm);
float line
    A buoyant line with attached floats at the top of the net (gillnet or trawl net).
плавающая линия;
limited access privilege program (lapp)
    A catch share program whereby quotas (a portion of the total allowable catch of the fishery) may be received or held for exclusive use by a person, business, or other entity.
программа привилегий с ограниченным доступом (lapp);
tickler chains
    A chain ground line to the footrope of a trawl net. it is hung four to eight inches below the regular footrope extending (in the italian style net) from spreader to spreader.
щекотки цепи;
finfish
    A common term to define fish as separate from shellfish.
рыба;
fishing community
    A community which is substantially dependent on or substantially engaged in the harvest or processing of fishery resources to meet social and economic needs, and includes fishing vessel owners, op... рыболовное сообщество;
echosounder
    A device that uses sonar technology for the measurement of underwater physical and biological components.
эхолот;
factory ships
    A factory ship, also known as a fish-processing vessel, is a large ocean-going vessel with extensive on-board facilities for processing and freezing caught fish. according to the fao, there are ab... заводские корабли;
fish ladder
    A fish ladder, also known as a fish way, fish pass, or fish steps, is a structure on or around artificial barriers (such as dams and locks) to facilitate diadromous fishes` natural migration. most... рыбная лестница;
overfished
    A fish population (stock) which size is sufficiently small to require a change in management practices to achieve an appropriate level and rate of rebuilding. note that overfishing and overfished ... перелов;
primary processor
    A fish processor that are involved in the cleaning, filleting, and quick freezing of fresh seafood.
основной процессор;
secondary processor
    A fish processor that takes the product from the primary processor and further processes the product by canning or further cutting the seafood products preparing it for retail markets.
вторичный процессор;
fishery management council (fmc)
    A fisheries management body established by the magnuson-stevens fishery conservation & management act to manage fishery resources.
совет по управлению рыболовством (fmc);
recreational angler
    A fisherman that practices harvesting marine or freshwater resources for personal consumption and/or pleasure.
рыболов-любитель;
subsistence fishery
    A fisherman that practices harvesting marine or freshwater resources for personal food, shelter, etc.
натуральное рыболовство;
open access
  1. A fishery in which no restrictions on entry or gear occur. license may be required in an open access fishery, but if no quotas in fishermen exist the fishery is still considered open access. открытый доступ;
derby fishery
    A fishery of brief duration during which fishermen race to take as much catch as they can before the fishery closes.
дерби фишери;
hook & line gear
    A fishing method that catches fish by means of a series of baited hooks, which are suspended on lines into the ocean. for example, horizontal longlines, vertical setlines, trolling, and jigging. крюк и леска;
set gillnet
    A gillnet that is anchored on both nets.
установить жаберную сеть;
crustacean
    A group of freshwater and saltwater animals having no backbone, with jointed legs and a hard shell made of chitin (e.g., shrimp, crabs, lobsters, crayfish).
ракообразный;
mollusks
    A group of freshwater and saltwater animals with no skeleton and usually one or two hard shells made of calcium carbonate (e.g., oysters, clams, mussels, conchs, scallops, squid, octopus).
моллюски;
slot limit
  1. A limit on the size of fish that may be kept. allows a fisherman to keep fish under a minimum size and over a maximum size, but not those in between the minimum and maximum; or size limits tha... лимит слотов;
seine nets
    A long flat net like a fence that are used to encircle a school of fish, with the boat driving around the fish in a circle.
неводные сети;
fishing mortality
    A measurement of the rate of removal of fish from a population by fishing. fishing mortality can be reported as either annual or instantaneous. annual mortality is the percentage of fish dying in ... рыбалка смертность;
salmonids
    A member of the salmonidae family of fishes. salmonids are the dominant fishes in the coldwater streams and lakes of north america, europe, and asia, where they support large recreational and comm... лососевые;
mooching
    A method of salmon fishing from a drifting or propelled boat. the bait is sunk deep with a heavy sinker then brought upward at an angle as the boat is maneuvered forward a few yards or the line re... суетиться;
encircling net
    A net used to encircle the fish to catch them.
окружающая сеть;
roundhaul net
    A net, such as a purse seine, that encircles schools of fish.
круговая сеть;
food webs
    A network describing the feeding interactions of the species in an area.
пищевые полотна;
harvest guideline(s)
    A numerical harvest level that is a general objective, but not a quota. attainment of a harvest guideline does not require a management response, but it does prompt review of the fishery.
указания по сбору урожая;
dockside buyer
    A person or company, located on popular fishing docks or wharfs, that buys seafood directly from fishermen.
покупатель в порту;
fishery management plan (fmp)
    A plan, and its amendments, that contains measures for conserving and managing specific fisheries and fish stocks.
план управления рыболовством (пух);
limited entry
    A program that changes a common property resource like fish into private property for individual fishermen (e.g., license limitation, individual transferable quotas).
ограниченный вход;
ovoviviparity
    A reproduction approach in which an animal incubates their eggs inside the mother until they hatch.
яйцеживорождение;
oviparity
    A reproduction approach in which the species produces eggs that hatch outside the female`s body.
яйцерождение;
semelparous
    A reproduction strategy when fish reproduce only once in their lifetime. often, they die shortly after reproduction.
семеллородящий;
vessel monitoring system (vms)
    A satellite communications system used to monitor fishing activities - for example, to ensure that vessels stay out of prohibited areas. the system is based on electronic devices (transceivers), w... система мониторинга судов (vms);
quota shares
    A shore of the total allowable catch allocated to an operating unit such as a vessel, a company, or an individual fisherman (individual quota) depending on the system of allocation. quotas may or ... доли квот;
brail net
    A small dip net used to scoop out portions of the catch from the main net and hail these portions aboard. brail nets are used to transfer tuna, salmon, and wetfish.
брайл сетка;
rebuilding
    A state when you need to implement management measures that increase a fish stock to its target size.
восстановление; реконструкция;
integrated ecosystem assessment (iea)
    A synthesis and quantitative analysis of information on relevant physical, chemical, ecological, and human processes in relation to specified ecosystem management objectives.
комплексная оценка экосистем (иэа);
smolt
    A term for a specific life stage in salmonids. in anadromous populations parr (small active fish with series of bars on their sides) transform into silvery smolts and migrate to the sea. once in t... смолт;
j-hooks
    A traditional hook in the shape of the letter "j" that is used in hook & line fisheries.
j-крючки;
roller trawl
    A trawl net equipped with rollers than enable the net to go over rocky areas without snagging.
роликовый трал;
individual fishing quotas (ifqs)
    A type of quota (a part of a total allowable catch) allocated to individual fishermen, vessel owners, or processors and which can be transferred (sold or leased) to others.
индивидуальные квоты на вылов рыбы (ifq);
individual transferable quota (itqs)
    A type of quota (a part of the total allowable catch) allocated to individual fishermen or vessel owners and which can be transferred (sold or leased) to others.
индивидуальная передаваемая квота (itq);
individual bycatch quota (ibqs)
    A type of quota used to control the catch of prohibited species.
индивидуальная квота на прилов (ibq);
spinning gear
    A type of recreational fishing reel with an open spool on the front end.
спиннинг;
alevin
    A young fish, especially the newly hatched salmon when still attached to its yolk sack.
алевин;
fishing industry
    All the people and activities involved in the harvesting, processing, and distribution of fishery products.
рыболовная индустрия;
saltonstall-kennedy act
    Allocates 30% of the duties for imported fishery products to technological, biological, marketing, and other research and services in order to promote the free flow of domestically-produced fisher... закон солтонстолла-кеннеди;
wetfish
    Also known as coastal pelagic species. wetfish are primarily caught by commercial fishermen using roundhaul gear (purse seine, drum seine, lampara) for human consumption, bait, animal feed, and fi... мокрая рыба;
endangered species act (esa)
    An act of federal law that provides for the conservation of endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife, and plants.
закон об исчезающих видах (esa);
spermatophores
    An aggregation of sperm held together by gelatinous material, or a gelatinous packet of sperm that is inserted into and attached to the female as part of reproductive behavior.
сперматофоры;
primary consumer
    An animal that feeds on plants. also known as an herbivore.
основной потребитель;
ecosystem-based fisheries management (ebfm)
    An approach that takes major ecosystem components and services - both structural and functional - into account in managing fisheries. its goal is to rebuild and sustain populations, species, biolo... экосистемное управление рыболовством (ebfm);
bioregions
    An ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than an ecozone and larger than an ecosystem.
биорегионы;
lampara net
    An encircling net (similar to purse seine yet that does not close completely) used in shallow water.
лампара нетто;
trammel net
    An entangling net that hangs down in several curtains.
траммельная сеть;
stewardship
    An ethic that embodies responsible planning and management of resources. the concept of stewardship has been applied in diverse realms, including with respect to environment, economics, health, pr... управление;
social impact assessment (sia)
    An evaluation of the likely outcomes and impacts of a specific policy or regulation on a designated target group or groups, as well as likely ripple effects to other groups.
оценка социального воздействия (осв);
subpopulation
    An identifiable fraction or subdivision of a population.
субпопуляция;
turtle excluder device (teds)
    An implement that has been certified to reduce the likelihood of capturing sea turtles.
устройство исключения черепах (ted);
relative abundance
    An index used to compare the abundance of fish populations from year to year. this does not measure the actual numbers of fish, but shows changes in populations over time.
относительное изобилие;
swim bladders
    An internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at the current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming.
плавательный пузырь;
ecosystem function
    An intrinsic ecosystem characteristic related to the set of conditions and processes whereby an ecosystem maintains its integrity. functions include such processes as decomposition, production, nu... функция экосистемы;
suspension feeder
    An organism that feeds by capturing particles suspended in the water column. also called filter feeders.
подвесной питатель;
roundfish
  1. Any ordinary market fish, exclusive of flounders, sole, halibut, and other flatfishes.

  2. Промысловая рыба (кроме камбалы)
круглая рыба;
environmental assessment (ea)
    As part of the national environmental policy act process, an environmental assessment is a concise public document that provides evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare an environ... экологическая оценка (эо);
otter boards
    Curved wood or steel doors, rectangular in shape, which are attached to the lines leading to the trawl net, used to spread the net open horizontally.
выдры доски;
fishery-independent data
    Data about fish resources collected by methods other than sampling commercial and recreational catches. an example of such a method is sampling in marine reserves.
независимые от промысла данные;
fishery-dependent data
    Data about fish resources collected by sampling commercial and recreational catches.
данные, зависящие от рыболовства;
bycatch reduction device (brd)
    Devices (such as finfish excluders) incorporated into fishing gear designed to reduce the take of non-target species.
устройство сокращения прилова (brd);
fish emulsion
    Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fishmeal industrially.
рыбная эмульсия;
anadromous species
    Fish that migrate from saltwater to freshwater to spawn.
анадромные виды;
target fishing
    Fishing for the primary purpose of catching a particular species or species group (the target species).
целевая рыбалка;
setline
    Fishing gear made up of a long main line attached to which are a large number of short branch lines. at the end of each branch line is a baited hook. when catching groundfish, setlines are laid on... установить линию;




Глоссарий рыболовных терминов в рыбной промышленности


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