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Глоссарии и словари бюро переводов Фларус

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Глоссарий терминов в области процессов горения и взрыва

В глоссарии собраны термины и понятия, которые охватывают следующие вопросы: химическая кинетика процессов горения и взрыва, возникновение и распространение ударных волн, инициирование горения и взрыва, экологические аспекты использования взрывчатых веществ.



backdraft
  1. A backdraft is an explosion caused by the inrush of air from any source or cause, into a burning enclosure, where combustion has been taking place in a shortage of air. a fire needs oxygen, or... обратная тяга;
quenching distance
  1. A characteristic length scale associated with laminar flame quenching during propagation in a narrow channel or tube.

  2. Расстояние погасания затухания пламени
расстояние закалки;
code of federal regulations (cfr)
    A compilation of the general and permanent rules published in the federal register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the united states of america.
кодекс федеральных правил (cfr);
exotherm
    A compound that gives off energy (heat) during its formation. it may also be used to refer to the heat released during an exothermic reaction.
экзотерма;
immediately dangerous to life and health (idlh)
    A concentration of airborne contaminants, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter, that represents the maximum level from which one could escape within 30 minut... непосредственная опасность для жизни и здоровья (idlh);
daubert challenge
    A daubert challenge is a particular type of motion made to the judge either before or during litigation, in an effort to exclude the introduction of unqualified expert witness testimony to the jud... добер челлендж;
fuel limited fire
    A fire in which the heat release rate and fire growth are controlled by the quantity and characteristics of the fuel.
огонь с ограничением топлива;
active crown fire
    A fire where a solid flame develops in the crowns of trees, and the surface and crown phases advance as a linked unit and are dependent on each other.
активный верховой огонь;
line scout
    A firefighter who determines the location of a fire line.
линейный разведчик;
fire fighting foam
    A foam used for fire suppression. its role is to cool the fire and to coat the fuel, preventing its contact with oxygen, resulting in suppression of the combustion.
пена для пожаротушения;
water drop
    A forest fire fighting technique in which an aircraft drops a supply of water onto an exposed fire from above.
капля воды;
ignitable mixture
    A generic term used to describe either a mixture of dust in air or a hybrid mixture that can burn, flame, or explode and that is within its flammable range (nfpa 499).
воспламеняющаяся смесь;
backburn
    A method to reduce the amount of flammable material during a bushfire by setting a fire along the inner edge of a fire line to consume the fuel in the path of a wildfire or change the direction of... backburn;
fire seasonality
    A period of time that fires can typically occur, or that they are likely to be of high intensity or burn large areas of land.
сезонность пожаров;
wildland fire fighting respirator
    A respirator that has been certified for providing respiratory protection during wildland fire-fighting operations by niosh under 42 cfr 84, "approval of respiratory protective devices," and certi... респиратор для пожаротушения wildland;
native species
    A species which is a part of the original flora or fauna of a subject area.
местные виды;
point of origin
  1. A specific physical location within the area of origin where a heat source and the fuel interact, resulting in a fire or explosion.

  2. The exact physical location within the area of or... начало координат;
asphyxiant
    A substance that can cause unconsciousness or death by suffocation (asphyxiation).
удушающий;
pyrophoric material
  1. A substance with an autoignition temperature in air at or below 130°f (54.4°c) [nfpa 400, 2016].

  2. Материал
пирофорный материал;
flare up
    A sudden acceleration in rate of spread or intensification of the fire.
вспыхивать;
kilopascal (kpa)
    A unit of pressure measurement. one kpa is approximately the pressure exerted by a 10-g mass resting on a 1-cm² area. 101.3 kpa = 1 atm. there are 1,000 pascals in a kilopascal.
килопаскаль (кпа);
open flame
    A visual flame that is typically free burning.
открытое пламя;
fire analysis
  1. According to nfpa 921, the process of determining the origin, cause, development, responsibility, and, when required, failure analysis of a fire or explosion.

  2. The process of determi... анализ пожара;
hazmat incident
    Actual or potential unplanned release of a hazardous material.
инцидент с опасным веществом;
sooting
    Airborne particles in the form of a complex mixture of organic compounds resulting from the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon adheres to the exposed surfaces of an object such as rocks, metal... копчение;
organic matter
    Also called total organic matter (tom). the portion of the soil, or other sample, that includes plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of soil organisms. органическая материя;
strong acid
    An acid that early completely ionizes in solutions. examples of strong acids are hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid.
сильная кислота;
decontamination area
    An area located on the upwind edge of the hot zone used to decontaminate personnel and equipment. all personnel coming out of the hot zone must pass through the decontamination area for decontamin... зона дезактивации;
vent (in fire)
    An opening to allow the passage and/or dissipation of smoke, gases and/or heat.
вентиляция (в огне);
wildland fire
  1. An unplanned and uncontrolled fire spreading through vegetative fuels, including any structures or other improvements thereon.

  2. Природный пожар
дикий огонь;
local agency
    Any agency having jurisdictional responsibility for all or part of an incident.
местное агентство;
grass fire
    Any fire in which the predominant fuel is grass or grass-like.
травяной огонь;
marine incident
    Any fire, explosion, hazardous material, utility, or other type of emergency incident on or in the vicinity of a marine vessel and/or facility to which an emergency response team can be expected t... морской инцидент;
ignitable gas
    Any gas or the gas phase of any material that is capable of fueling a fire and burning, including a flammable gas (nfpa 921).
горючий газ;
ignitable liquid
  1. Any liquid or the liquid phase of any material that is capable of fueling a fire, including a flammable liquid, combustible liquid, or any other material that can be liquefied and burned (nfpa... воспламеняющаяся жидкость;
explosive material
    Any material that can act as fuel for an explosion.
взрывчатый материал;
fire barrier
    Any obstruction to the spread of fire. this is typically an area devoid of combustibles.
противопожарный барьер;
candling
    Burning aerial canopy of one single tree from ground up.
просвечивание;
co2
    Carbon dioxide
со2; carbon dioxide;
ingestion exposure
    Chemicals can be ingested through the mouth (swallowed). ingestion can result from consuming contaminated food or drinks, hand-to-mouth contact, or smoking cigarettes that have come into contact w... воздействие при проглатывании;
char blisters
  1. Convex segments of carbonized material separated by cracks or crevasses that form on the surface of char, forming on materials such as wood as the result of pyrolysis or burning. (nfpa 921) чарские волдыри;
weight percent or percent by mass
    Defined as the mass of the solute divided by the total mass of the solution and multiplied by 100%.
массовый процент или процент по массе;
percent by volume
    Defined as the volume of the solute divided by the sum of the volumes of the other components multiplied by 100%. this is typically used for mixtures of liquids.
процент по объему;
flame burning velocity
    Defined by nfpa as the burning velocity of a laminar flame under specified conditions of composition, temperature and pressure for an unburned gas.
скорость горения пламени;
fire severity
    Degree to which a site (ecosystem) has been altered by fire or successional processes disrupted by fire.
степень пожара;
personal protective equipment (ppe)
    Equipment and/or clothing that is required to mitigate the risk of injury or exposure to hazardous conditions encountered in the performance of duties.
средства индивидуальной защиты (сиз);
empirical data
  1. Factual data that is based on actual measurement, observation or direct sensory experience.

  2. Factual data that is based on actual measurement, observation or direct sensory experienc... экспериментальные данные;
pm 2.5
    Fine inhalable particles with diameters that are generally 2.5 micrometers and smaller.
пм 2,5;
combustible dust
    Finely divided solid particles that present a dust fire or dust explosion hazard when dispersed and ignited in air.
горючая пыль;
accidental fire
    Fire for which the cause does not involve a human act with the intent to ignite or spread a fire.
случайный пожар;
fully developed stage of a fire
    Fire has spread over much if not all the available fuel; temperatures reach their peak, resulting in heat damage. oxygen is consumed rapidly (nfpa 921).
полностью развитая стадия пожара;
flashover
  1. Flashover, in contrast with backdraft, is a temperature driven event. a flashover is the rapid transition to a state of total surface involvement in a fire of combustible materials within an e... flashover;
inhalation exposure
    For most chemicals in the form of vapors, gases, mists or fine particulates, inhalation (breathing) is the major route of entry. contaminants that enter the respiratory system through inhalation m... воздействие при вдыхании;
fire tetrahedron
    Four elements must be present for a fire to occur- fuel, heat, an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen) and a chemical chain reaction.
огненный тетраэдр;
ignition stage of a fire
    Fuel, oxygen and heat join together in a sustained chemical reaction resulting in fire (nfpa 921).
стадия возгорания пожара;
foliage freeze
    Green vegetation of trees that appears windswept and “frozen”. this is due to the heat of the fire that causes green vegetation to soften while wind and/or gravity bend the foliage in the directio... замораживание листвы;
grounding wire
    Grounding wires serve as an alternate path for the current to flow back to the source, rather than go through anyone touching a dangerous electrical box or appliance
заземляющий провод;
stages of fire
    Ignition, growth, fully developed and decay (nfpa 921).
стадии пожара;
white ash
    In a wildland fire, windblown white ash that is deposited on the exposed side of objects and white ash exposure which is created by the more complete combustion of materials on the exposed side of... белый ясень;
action levels
    Indicator of the level of a toxic or harmful substance and/or activity which requires medical surveillance, industrial hygiene monitoring, or biological monitoring. action levels are used by osha ... уровни действий;
pm 10
    Inhalable particles with diameters that are generally 10 micrometers and smaller.
10 вечера;
oxygen deficiency (in fire)
    Insufficient amount of oxygen to support combustion.
дефицит кислорода (при пожаре);
duration of flaming
    Length of time for which flaming combustion persists under specified conditions. (iso 13943)
продолжительность пламени;
live fuels
    Living plants, such as trees, grasses, and shrubs, in which the seasonal moisture content cycle is controlled largely by internal physiological mechanisms, rather than by external weather influenc... живое топливо;
fingers of a fire
    Long, narrow tongues projecting from the main body of a fire, usually occurring on rapidly running fires.
пальцы огня;
glowing combustion
    Luminous burning of solid material without a visible flame.
светящееся горение;
spontaneously combustible
    Materials that can undergo combustion and burn without the addition of heat or a flame.
самовозгорающийся;
explosion prevention
    Methods used to prevent an explosion by controlling either the air, fuel, ignition source or a combination of these.
предотвращение взрыва;
minimum ignition energy (mie)
    Minimum energy needed to ignite combustible vapor, gas or dust particles.
минимальная энергия зажигания (миэ);
non-flaming combustion
    Mode of combustion that produces a smoldering glow in a materials surface.
непламенное горение;
hazwoper
    Name given to the 29cfr 1910.120 regulation entitled hazardous waste operation and emergency response.
хазвопер;
nrtl
    Nationally recognized testing laboratory
нртл;
ignition device
    Object used to set something on fire or to begin burning.
устройство зажигания;
flanks of a fire
    Part of the fires perimeter that is roughly parallel to the main direction of spread.
фланги огня;
parts per million (ppm)
    Ppm is a way of expressing very dilute concentrations of substances. ppm means out of a million (1/1000000). one ppm is equivalent to one milligram of substance per liter of water (mg/l) or 1 mill... части на миллион (ppm);
understory burn
    Prescribed burning under a forest canopy.
подлесок горит;
biological oxygen demand (bod)
    Refers to the amount of oxygen that would be consumed if all the organic materials in a 1-liter water sample were oxidized by bacteria and protozoa. it is generally a good measure of the organic c... биологическая потребность в кислороде (бпк);




Глоссарий терминов в области процессов горения и взрыва


Отказ от ответственности. Глоссарий терминов в области процессов горения и взрыва не охраняется авторским правом. Для создания глоссария редакторами бюро переводов были использованы материалы из открытых источников и опубликованы в образовательных целях. Если вы заметили неточность в терминологии, ошибки или факт неправомерного использования информации, свяжитесь с главным редактором бюро переводов по электронной почте.