Глоссарий





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16 мая, 2024

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Preparing a scientific article for publication in an electronic (online) journal

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About automatic speech recognition

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Translation services for tunneling shields and tunnel construction technologies



Глоссарии и словари бюро переводов Фларус

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Глоссарий по ремонту автомобилей

В глоссарии собраны термины в области машиностроения и трансмиссий. С привлечением широкого круга информационных источников (международные и национальные стандарты, справочники, словари по механике, машиностроению, теории механизмов и машин) редакторы бюро переводов подготовили глоссарий для использования его в системах машинной памяти.



vehicle identification number
    A 17-character “serial number” that is unique to each vehicle. the vin characters are broken down into several sections
vin;
rear view camera
    A camera mounted at the back of the vehicle that displays a picture on a screen in the dash or rear view mirror of what is behind the car when the transmission is in reverse.
battery electric vehicle
    A car without an internal combustion engine that is powered exclusively by electricity stored in a large onboard battery pack. most of today’s bevs have a range of about 60-100 miles. an exception... bev;
battery hold-down
    A fastening device used to secure the battery firmly in place. the two most common types are the wedge, which clamps over a protrusion near the bottom of the battery, and the bracket, which fits a...
electronic fuel injection
    A fuel delivery system in which electrically controlled nozzles (injectors) spray fuel into the intake manifold or cylinders as needed, allowing for more precise fuel control and better fuel effic... efi;
port fuel injection
    A fuel delivery system that uses a separate fuel injector for each cylinder, and injects fuel into the intake ports upstream of the intake valves.
multi-point injection
    A fuel delivery system that utilizes a fuel injector for each cylinder.
vacuum hose
    A hose (usually rubber or hard plastic) that transfers vacuum to various vehicle components.
group number
    A number established by the battery council international (bci) that identifies a battery based on its battery length, height, width, terminal design/location, and other physical characteristics.....
four-wheel drive
    A part-time system that powers all four wheels for improved traction during adverse road conditions and off-road use. four-wheel drive systems differ from all-wheel drive (awd) systems in two ways... 4wd or 4x4;
4wd or 4x4
    four-wheel drive;
    all-wheel drive
      A permanent, four-wheel drive system designed for improved traction on all surfaces and at all times. the main difference between awd and 4wd systems is that the driver cannot disengage awd.
    awd;
    awd
      All wheel drive
    all-wheel drive; all wheel drive;
    cold cranking amps
      A rating that indicates the amount of power a battery can provide for engine cranking in cold-start conditions.
    cca;
    dubs
      A slang term for twenty-inch (“double dime”) or larger custom wheels fitted with low profile tires for a custom look. ride quality can suffer with larger wheels and tires, although a low profile p...
    limited-slip
      A system of gears that allows the outside driven wheel to rotate faster than the inside driven wheel when turning a corner. compared to a conventional “open” differential (which directs power to t... differential;
    supplemental restraint system
      A system of passenger protection air bags that supplement the conventional seatbelts. modern cars can be equipped with 10 or more airbags that protect occupants in frontal, side and rollover crash... srs;
    park assist
      A system of ultrasonic sensors on the front and/or rear bumpers that provide the driver with visual, audible and/or tactile alerts as their vehicle approaches a stationary object.
    automated emergency braking
      A system that automatically applies the brakes to prevent or mitigate a collision when the car is approaching another vehicle or object at too high a rate of speed.
    electronic brake force distribution
      A system that helps reduce stopping distances by using antilock brake system components to vary front-to-rear braking force. the system compensates for different vehicle loads, and normal weight t...
    electronic stability control
      A system that provides selective wheel braking to improve vehicle handling and help drivers regain control in certain extreme circumstances. esc employs components of the anti-lock braking system ... esc;
    traction control system
      A system that uses the anti-lock braking components to limit wheel spin when accelerating on slippery surfaces. more advanced systems can also retard engine spark timing and automatically back off... tcs;
    coolant recovery reservoir
      A tank that stores additional engine coolant and allows the radiator to be completely filled at all times for maximum efficiency. as the engine warms up and the coolant expands, excess is directed...
    macpherson strut
      strut;
      brake booster
        A vacuum or hydraulic powered device that multiplies the foot pressure applied to the brake pedal to increase braking power while reducing the required driver effort.
      advanced driver assistance systems
        A variety of safety-related systems that monitor vehicle performance and the surrounding environment. adas provide a variety of driver alerts when potentially hazardous conditions exists, and some... adas;
      crossover utility vehicle
        A vehicle similar to an suv but built with unit-body construction (no separate frame) and often based on existing passenger car structures. cuvs offer styling similar to that of an suv, but come i... cuv;
      cuv
        crossover utility vehicle;
        hybrid electric vehicle
          A vehicle that achieves improved fuel efficiency by using an electric motor to help the engine propel the car. the motor receives power from a modestly sized battery that is automatically recharge... hev;
        brake assist
          An adas system that automatically applies full braking power when it detects that the driver is executing a panic stop.
        driver alertness monitoring
          An adas system that monitors driver behavior for indications of drowsy or distracted driving. when warranted, the system provides visual and audible alerts advising the drive to take make a rest s...
        lane departure warning
          An adas system that monitors lane markings and provides the driver with visual, audible and/or tactile alerts if their car begins to leave its lane and the turn signal is not on.
        blind spot monitoring
          An adas system that monitors the driver’s blind spots at the rear quarters of the car and provides visual, audible and/or tactile alerts when a vehicle is present in them.
        hydrogen fuel cell
          An advanced “battery” that uses hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity that powers an electric motor to propel the car. the only exhaust emissions of a hydrogen fuel cell are heat and water v...
        technical service bulletin
          An advisory bulletin issued by a vehicle manufacturers that describes updated processes and/or parts to address specific problems that may occur on some models. repairs based on a tsb are covered ... tsb;
        sport utility vehicle
          An enclosed body on a truck chassis that provides ruggedness and ground clearance with room for up to 9 passengers and their cargo. these vehicles usually have fuel economy and ride/handling trait... suv;
        transverse mounted engine
          An engine mounted so that its crankshaft is positioned side-to-side in relation to the vehicle. transverse engines are typically found in front-wheel drive vehicles.
        single overhead camshaft
          An engine with one camshaft located in the upper portion of the cylinder head.
        sohc;
        sohc
          single overhead camshaft;
          dual overhead camshafts
            An engine with two camshafts located in the upper portion of the cylinder head.
          dohc;
          dohc
            Double overhead camshaft
          dual overhead camshafts; double overhead camshaft;
          variable valve timing
            An enhanced engine valve train system used on most modern automobiles that allows the lift, duration or timing (any or all) of the intake and/or exhaust valves to be changed during engine operatio... vvt;
          gasoline direct injection
            An fuel delivery system that injects gasoline under extremely high pressure directly into the engine combustion chamber. this technology generates more power with better fuel economy and lower emi... gdi;
          green house gas
            Any gas in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range, thereby contributing to climate change/global warming. the primary greenhouse gases in the earth`s atm... ghg;
          aftermarket part
            Any service replacement part not obtained from the vehicle manufacturer through a franchised dealer. many aftermarket parts are made by the same companies that supply the original equipment part t...
          brake drag
            Brakes that do not completely release after application.
          autonomous vehicles
            Cars that use advanced technology to accelerate, brake and steer themselves to a preset destination. still in the prototype stage, google has been the most visible developer of autonomous vehicle ...
          brake shoes
            Curved metal platforms faced with a friction material that is pressed against the inside of a brake drum to slow or stop the car. brake shoes are applied by the wheel cylinder.
          front-wheel drive
            Drive system that provides power to only the front wheels of the vehicle. front-wheel drive systems incorporate a differential into a transmission, creating a transaxle. a transaxle can be automat... fwd;
          rear-wheel drive
            Drive system that provides power to only the rear wheels of the vehicle. in trucks, this type of powertrain is sometimes referred to as “4x2” in comparison to a four-wheel drive “4x4” system.
          4x2;
          4x2
            rear-wheel drive;
            daytime running lights
              Front lighting designed to operate during daylight hours to improve a vehicle’s visibility to other drivers. drls may be normal-intensity headlights, reduced-intensity headlights or separate light... drl;
            adaptive headlights
              Headlights that steer in the direction the front wheels are turned to improve visibility when going around corners.
            high intensity discharge
              Headlights that use high voltage to ionize a mix of gases, including xenon, in a special bulb to produce an extra-white or even bluish light that is several times brighter than a conventional halo... hid;
            differential lube
              Heavy-duty lubricant specifically designed to handle the requirements of the gears and mechanisms located within the differential case.
            gear oil;
            brake master cylinder
              The brake system component that turns the mechanical power provided when you step on the brake pedal into the hydraulic power that is needed to apply the brakes and slow or stop the vehicle.
            master cylinder;
            brake pads
              Metal backing plates faced with a friction material that is pressed against a brake rotor to slow or stop the car. the brake pads fit into, and are applied by, a brake caliper.
            oe or oem
              Original equipment or original equipment manufacturer. typically refers to components used to build the vehicle at the factory, and available as service replacements through franchised dealers.
            control arms
              Pivoting suspension components that connect the vehicle chassis to the spindle that supports the wheel and tire assembly.
            rust proofing
              Protective coating applied to vulnerable areas of the vehicle to protect them from rust and corrosion. undercoating products are typically used on the undercarriage and inside body parts such as f...
            knocking, pinging
              detonation;
              detonation, pinging
                knocking;
                plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
                  Similar to a conventional hybrid electric vehicle, a phev has a larger battery that can be charged by plugging the car into an external power source. phevs have an electric-only range of around 10... phev;
                phev
                  plug-in hybrid electric vehicle;
                  extended-range electric vehicle
                    Similar to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, an erev has a much bigger battery that typically provides an electric-only driving range of around 30 to 40 miles. once the battery is discharged, a g... erev;
                  erev
                    extended-range electric vehicle;
                    powertrain
                      The combination of the engine, transmission, driveshaft, differential and axles that deliver power to the wheels.
                    drivetrain;
                    brake fluid reservoir
                      The container that stores a supply of brake fluid until it is needed. on most vehicles, the reservoir is attached to the brake master cylinder.
                    brake caliper
                      The hydraulic assembly that contains the brake pads and applies them against the brake rotor to slow or stop the car.
                    lightweighting
                      The process of reducing vehicle weight using high-strength steels, aluminum, plastics, carbon fiber and other materials to achieve fuel economy gains that reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
                    gross vehicle weight rating
                      The total maximum allowable weight capacity of a vehicle, including the weight of the vehicle itself plus the weight of its fuel, passengers, and cargo.
                    gvwr;
                    gvwr
                      gross vehicle weight rating;
                      curb weight
                        The weight of a vehicle carrying a full tank of fuel but no passengers or cargo.
                      transaxle
                        Used in front-wheel drive and rear-engine, rear-wheel drive vehicles. transaxles incorporate both a transmission and a differential into a single unit.
                      biodiesel
                        Vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel. biodiesel is typically blended with petroleum-based diesel fuel in 5 or 20 percent concentrations that are commonly referred to as b5 and b20.
                      cuts out
                        When an engine loses power or misfires and feels like the engine is shut off momentarily.
                      rough idle
                        When the engine vibrates or shakes while running with the drivers foot off the gas.




                      Глоссарий по ремонту автомобилей


                      Отказ от ответственности. Глоссарий по ремонту автомобилей не охраняется авторским правом. Для создания глоссария редакторами бюро переводов были использованы материалы из открытых источников и опубликованы в образовательных целях. Если вы заметили неточность в терминологии, ошибки или факт неправомерного использования информации, свяжитесь с главным редактором бюро переводов по электронной почте.