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Глоссарии и словари бюро переводов Фларус

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Глоссарий терминов смазочных материалов

Глоссарий содержит термины по смазочным веществам для уменьшения трения и износа между двумя поверхностями, соединениям, применяемых в качестве рабочих жидкостей в двигателях, машинах, гидравлических системах и приборах.

o.k. load (допустимая нагрузка)
    Показатель устойчивости смазочного вещества к давлению. это максимальная нагрузка при которой еще не происходит разрыва смазочной пленки, и, таким образом, не происходит сваривания испытываемых об...
усилители / промоторы адгезии
    Присадки к маслам и консистентным смазкам, улучшающие их адгезию (например, полиизобутен).
коррозионное истирание (фреттинг-коррозия)
    Ржавчина, которая образуется на посадочных местах. если говорить точнее, то это фрикционный износ, которому подвергаются подвижные детали и их посадочные места изза колебательных движений с очень ...
дисульфид молибдена (mos2)
    Твердая смазка.
polyalphaolefin (pao)
    A category of base stocks often used in air compressor lubricants, engine oils, transmission fluids and gear lubricants. they offer excellent oxidative resistance for a very long fluid life, very ...
alkylbenzene (ab)
    A category of base stocks often used in refrigeration compressors. alkylbenzene base stocks are wax-free, offer good solubility with additives and have good miscibility with certain refrigerants i...
polyalkylene glycol (pag)
    A category of base stocks typically used in air and gas compressors, textile lubricants, automotive air-conditioning compressors and marine oils. they are available in water-soluble, oil soluble, ...
polyol ester (poe)
    A category of base stocks typically used in air and refrigeration compressors, jet aircraft engines, hydraulic systems and high-temperature chain lubricants. they are compatible with most non-sili...
    A category of base stocks typically used in reciprocating air compressors and vane compressors. diesters mix with most glycols, polyalphaolefins (paos) and other fluids. diesters offer excellent r...
    A compound containing three ester groups. (an ester is a chemical compound typically formed through the reaction between an acid and an alcohol.)
iso viscosity grades
    A grading system approved by the international standards organization (iso) to evaluate the viscosity of a lubricant.
nlgi grades
    A grading system established by the national lubricating grease institute to evaluate the consistency or thickness of a grease.
two-stage hydrocracking
    A refining process that utilizes high-pressure hydrogen to break apart and reform most or all of the aromatic molecules into preferred chemical structures and strip virtually all sulfur and nitrog...
hazard analysis critical control point (haccp)
    A systematic approach to identify, evaluate and control food-safety hazards. it addresses physical, chemical and biological hazards with the goal of preventing hazards before products enter the fo...
timken extreme-pressure test (timken ok load test)
    A test to determine the extreme-pressure capabilities of a lubricant. it measures the heaviest load a lubricant can sustain without scoring the test block. results may be expressed in pounds or ki...
fzg wear test
    A test to evaluate the anti-wear characteristics and load-carrying capacities of gear lubricants.
anti-wear agent
    An additive that minimizes wear caused by metal-on-metal contact by forming a film on the metal surfaces, typically activated by heat and pressure.
extreme-pressure agent
    An additive that prevents sliding metal surfaces from seizing in extreme-pressure conditions. it combines chemically with metal surfaces to form a layer of film that prevents welding and excessive...
metal deactivator
  1. An additive that reduces the catalytic effect of metals and their salts on the rate of oxidation.

  2. Organic type of additive having the property of suppressing the catalytic action of...
lubrication survey
    An examination of potential lubrication-related food-contamination risks in a facility, generally conducted as part of an haccp (hazard analysis and critical control point) plan.
    In the process, lubricant feed stocks are reacted with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst at very high temperature and pressure. the process displaces impurities and unsaturated hydrocarbons.<...
    Microscopic protrusion on a metal surface that typically occurs with normal finishing processes. ideally, lubrication should be sufficient to prevent asperities on each metal surface from protrudi...
auto-ignition temperature
    Minimum temperature at which a combustible fluid will burst into flame without the assistance of an extraneous ignition source. this temperature is typically several hundred degrees higher than th...
oxidative stability
    Resistance of a petroleum product to oxidation, thereby increasing its potential service or storage life. since the life of many lubricants can be well over a year, simulations are used to show th...
lubricity (film strength)
    The capacity of a substance for reducing friction.
film strength (lubricity)
    The extent to which a lubricant is able to prevent the scuffing or scoring of metal surfaces.
viscosity dilution
    The reduction of lubricant viscosity caused by contamination with water or other substances.
food-grade formulation
    The usda has established three food-grade designations, and a lubricant’s ingredients determine whether or not it meets the requirements for one of these designations: fluids meeting the requireme...
four-ball tests
    Two test procedures on the same principle. the four-ball wear test is used to determine the relative wear-preventing properties of lubricants operating under boundary lubrication conditions. the f...
motor octane number (mon)
    A numerical indication of a gasoline’s ability to prevent detonation under high speed, high load engine operation.
cetane index
  1. A value calculated from the density and distillation mid-point temperature of a fuel, used as an alternative to cetane number to indicate relative diesel ignition quality.

  2. The theor...
supplement 1
    Abbreviation for obsolete military specification us army 2-104b (supplement 1).
series 3
    Abbreviation for the discontinued caterpillar tractor company crankcase oil specification “superior lubricants (series 3)”.
shear stability
    Ability of a lubricant such as a grease or vi improved oil to withstand mechanical shearing without being degraded in consistency or viscosity.
    Ability of an oil to disperse and suspend potential deposit-forming materials so that they can be removed from the system when the oil is drained.
anti-wear (aw) agent
    Additive that is active in preventing damage caused by occurrence of solid phase welding between sliding surfaces without local surface melting.
defoamant (foam inhibitor)
    Additive used in lubricating oils to assist the collapse of surface layers of foam caused by agitation or the release of entrained or entrapped air.
cetane number improver
    Additive which improves the cetane number of a diesel fuel.
rust and oxidation (r&o)
    Additives used to enhance the rust and oxidation resistance of oils and greases.
cold cranking simulator (ccs)
    An intermediate shear rate viscometer that predicts the ability of an oil to permit satisfactory cranking speed in a cold engine.
sulfurised oil
    An oil in which elemental sulfur is either loosely combined with the oil, or is combined with a fatty oil and added to the oil. used in applications where reactive sulphur is desired to provide ex...
    An oil that meets the low temperature viscosity limits of one of the sae w numbers as well as the 100°c viscosity limits of one of the non-w numbers.
skf test
    Any of several practical tests for greases using ball or roller bearings, developed by skf.
emission control system
    Any of several systems intended to reduce the amount of atmospheric pollutants released by automotive vehicles.
cleveland open cup (coc) tester
    Apparatus used to determine the flash and fire points of most petroleum products with flash points above 79°c.
octane requirement increase (ori)
    As deposits accumulate in the combustion chamber of an engine, its octane requirement (or) increases.
solvent neutral oil (sno)
    Base oil manufactured from solvent refined paraffinic lube distillates.
    Chemical symbol for the alkaline compound potassium hydroxide.
bore polishing
    Excessive smoothing of the surface finish of the cylinder bore or liner in an engine to a mirror-like appearance. this results in the piston oil control ring being unable to control oil consumptio...
newtonian flow
    Flow in a fluid where the shear rate (flow rate) is directly proportional to the shearing force (pressure).
distillate fuel
    Fuel composed mainly of materials evaporated during the distillation of crude oil.
residual fuel
    Fuel composed mainly of materials remaining as unevaporated after distillation of crude oil.
sae grade
    Grade indicating the viscosity range of a crankcase, transmission or rear axle lubricant, according to systems designed by sae.
gaseous fuels
    Hydrocarbon gases (methane, ethane, propane, butane) which are used as internal combustion engine fuels. there is also an increase in interest in gaseous fuels gathered from landfills and sewage t...
    Ignition of the fuel/air mixture in a petrol engine before the spark plug fires. often caused by incandescent deposits in the combustion chamber.
load wear index
  1. Index of the ability of a lubricant to prevent wear under applied loads as determined in the four-ball ep tester.

  2. A measure of the ability of a lubricant to minimize wear at applied...
viscosity index improver (vii)
    Lubricant additive, usually a high molecular weight polymer, that reduces an oil’s tendency to change viscosity with change of temperature.
multipurpose grease
    Lubricating grease suitable for a variety of applications such as chassis, wheel bearings, universal joints and water pumps on automotive equipment.
neutralisation number
    Measure of the acidity or alkalinity of an oil. the number is the mass in milligrams of the amount of acid (hci) or base (koh) required to neutralise one gram of oil.
acid number (an)
    Milligrams of koh required in tests to neutralise all the acidic constituents present in a 1 gram sample of petroleum product. also formerly called the neutralisation number, this property is ofte...
straight mineral
    Oils which do not contain compounds or “additives”.
dn factor
  1. Old reference to define bearing speed. corresponds to bearing bore in millimetres (d) multiplied by the speed in rpm (n). current terminology is ndm.

  2. Used as a guide to lubricant se...
    Organic compounds containing oxygen which can be blended into gasoline to improve the octane number or reduce exhaust carbon monoxide (co) content. alcohols and
worked penetration
  1. Penetration of a sample of grease immediately after it has been brought to 25°c and worked 60 strokes in the astm grease worker.

  2. (astm d-217) penetration of a sample of lubricating ...
base number (bn)
    Quantity of hydrochloric (astm d974) or perchloric (astm d2896) acid expressed in milligrams of koh equivalent that is required to neutralise all the basic constituents of a 1 gram sample of petro...
    See multigrade
ash (sulfated)
    See sulfated ash
nlgi classification numbers
    Series of numbers used to classify the consistency (hardness) of a grease, based on a standard astm cone penetration test..
api service classification
    System of letter designations agreed on by api, sae and astm to define broad classes of engine service. also a system of service classifications for automotive gear lubricants.
nlgi service classification system
    System of letter designations to define classes of automotive chassis and wheel bearing greases.
exhaust gas recirculation (egr)
    System to reduce automotive emission of nitrogen oxides (nox). it introduces exhaust gases into the intake manifold where they dilute the air/fuel ratio. this reduces peak combustion temperatures,...
typical test
    Test results that are characteristic of a product, normally mean values obtained from analysis of a number of production batches of that product.
fzg load stage
    The load which can be transmitted by a pair of gears under the conditions of test and temperature in the fzg gear machine.
octane requirement (or)
    The lowest octane number reference fuel that will allow an engine to run knock free under standard conditions of service. or is a characteristic of each individual engine.
air release value
    The number of minutes for air entrained in oil to reduce the volume to 0.2% under the conditions of test and at the specified temperature.
reid vapour pressure (rvp)
    Usually used in reference to petrol, it is the vapour pressure of a sample at 37.8°c (100°f).
absorbent (wash oil)
    Oil that selectively strips heavier hydrocarbons from a gas, as in coke oven gas; by-product plants subsequently remove the hydrocarbons.

Глоссарий терминов смазочных материалов

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