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Глоссарии и словари бюро переводов Фларус

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Глоссарий по грузовым перевозкам в США

    (aka sidelifter) a specialized container trailer with cranes on the front and rear to allow for on-the-spot loading and unloading.
engine brake
  1. A braking system that utilizes the back pressure from the engine’s pistons to slow down the vehicle. commonly used to prevent heavy trucks from accelerating out of control while driving on ste... retarder; jake brake;
rocky mountain double
    A combination of a standard trailer and a shorter pup trailer. legal in more than 20 states, use is usually restricted to toll roads, freeways, or by permit.
turnpike double
  1. A combination of two standard trailers. legal in 18 states, these unusually long combinations are usually restricted to toll roads or freeways.

  2. Commercial vehicle truck or tractor u...
electronic on-board recorder (eobr)
    A device hooked into the truck which transmits useful management information such as truck location, speed, and idle time.
less-than-truckload (ltl)
    A driver or carrier who specializes in, or a load composed of many different types of cargo, each typically weighing less than 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg), with many different destinations. generally...
dedicated route
    A driver or carrier who transports cargo between regular, prescribed routes. regular route drivers usually are at home on regular intervals, given the scheduled nature of their routes.
regular route;
regional route
    A driver or carrier who transports cargo in a limited geographical area, usually within a certain radius of one’s own home or company terminal, and may or may not maintain a schedule.
over-the-road (otr)
    A driver or carrier who transports cargo to any place at any time, without prescribed schedules or routes. long-haul otr involves being away for weeks, or months at a time, often cross-country or ...
    A dry van with solid or openable roof with a moveable mechanized floor for unloading.
bottom dump
    A dump with a funnel-shaped floor for unloading through the bottom.
belly dump;
rear dump
    A dump with a rear pivot point allowing the front of the cargo area to be raised vertically for unloading through the rear.
    A flatbed with a lowered deck, featuring a raised step at the front, where the trailer attaches to the fifth wheel.
covered wagon
    A flatbed with specially fitted side plates and curved ribs supporting a tarp covering, commonly referred to as a «side kit». named for the resemblance to horse-drawn covered wagons.
side kit;
for-hire carrier
    A licensed carrier that holds itself out to hire under either a public tariff for the general public (for-hire common carrier) or under a contract filed with a specific shipper (contract carrier)....
private carrier
    A not-for-hire carrier contracted to or owned by a shipper that does not offer services to the general public, and operates primarily to transport its own goods. private carriers are not required ...
dual wheels
    A pair of tire and wheel assemblies mounted side-by-side on a single axle hub. in some applications it is replaced by a super single. on pickup trucks it is sometimes called a dually. the assembly...
bill of lading (bol, bl, b/l)
    A paper document between a shipper and a carrier acknowledging the receipt of goods for transport. usually describes the nature of the cargo; hazardous materials classification (if any); amount of...
motor carrier
    A person or company providing transportation of property or passengers using commercial motor vehicles.
refrigerated van
    A refrigerated and insulated box trailer.
tandem axle
  1. A set of axles spaced close together, legally defined as more than 40 and less than 96 inches apart by the usdot

  2. Undercarriage arrangement where two or more axles are close coupled,...
cab over
    A short, box-shaped tractor with no hood (uk: bonnet), and a steep vertical front. the «cab» rides «over» the engine and front steering axle. used when a shorter wheelbase is needed.
dry van
    A simple, enclosed non-climate controlled rectangular trailer that carries general cargo, including food and other products that do not require refrigeration. usually loaded/unloaded through the r...
straight truck
    A single vehicle, with no articulation. normally 2 or 3 axles, sometimes with lift axles.
super single
  1. A single, larger wheel, substituted for a tandem assembly. the main benefit of a super single is a reduction in weight; combined with lower rolling resistance the super single promises better ...
container skeletal carrier
    A skeletal trailer composed of a simple chassis for the mounting of an intermodal container.
deep-drop van
    A specialized dry van that maximizes interior space, with a lowered floor and higher roof. normally used to transport bulky, relatively light cargo, such as furniture and electronics.
gooseneck lowboy
    A specialized lowered flatbed trailer featuring an arched coupling arm, normally used for oversize/overweight loads.
auto transport
    A specialized trailer or truck/trailer combination used for transporting passenger vehicles.
car hauler; portable parking lot;
team drivers
    A team of two or more drivers who ride together and drive the same truck in shifts, essentially allowing the truck to remain in motion almost constantly. primarily used for time-sensitive freight....
doubles trailer
    A trailer between 26 feet (7.9 m) and 29 feet (8.8 m) long that can be used singularly as a delivery trailer in congested areas or in combination with another trailer for over the road.
beverage trailer
    A trailer between 26 feet (7.9 m) and 29 feet (8.8 m) used primarily for the transport of beverages. colloquially known as a sidebanger, sideloader, or route trailer.
day cab
    A truck cab without a sleeper berth.
conventional truck
    A truck or tractor featuring an engine forward of the cab, with a conventional hood configuration.
oversize load
    A unit of cargo that is larger than the legally defined limits for width, length, height, and/or weight; it cannot be broken down into smaller units.
dry bulk
    A variation of the liquid tank trailer, with a funnel-shaped bottom, used for hauling bulk quantities of dry powder (sometimes called bulk pneumatic). usually loaded through holes in the top, unlo...
combination vehicle
    A vehicle composed of two or more separate units, a tractor (powered unit, semi-truck) and a trailer (unpowered unit, semi-trailer).
lift axle
  1. An air-powered axle that may be raised or lowered to the ground to provide greater load-carrying capacity, or to comply with axle weight requirements (see also federal gross weight bridge form... federal gross weight bridge formula; cheater axle;
    An articulated (jointed) combination vehicle, often composed of a 10-wheeled (three axle) tractor and an 4-wheeled (two axle) trailer. there are also two axle tractors, single axle trailers, and o... eighteen-wheeler; big rig; big truck; tractor-trailer;
    Can be either a dry box with tarp sides, or a flatbed with a movable frame of squared ribs supporting a tarp.
company driver
    Employee of a carrier who is assigned to drive company-owned trucks.
hazardous materials (haz-mat)
    Explosive, flammable, poisonous or otherwise potentially dangerous cargo. large amounts or especially hazardous cargo are required to be placarded under haz-mat regulations.
operating authority
    Motor carriers for-hire must apply for the authority to engage in interstate commerce with the federal motor carrier safety administration.
    Operating a tractor unit with no trailer attached.
    Operating a truck empty.
car hauler
    See auto transport.
auto transport;
portable parking lot
    See auto transport.
auto transport;
belly dump
    See bottom dump.
bottom dump;
headache rack
    See bulkhead.
side kit
    See covered wagon.
covered wagon;
regular route
    See dedicated route.
dedicated route;
    See dropdeck.
    See flatbed.
cheater axle
    See lift axle.
lift axle;
bull wagon
    See livestock.
irregular route
    See over-the-road.
    See over-the-road.
big rig
    See semi-truck.
big truck
    See semi-truck.
    See semi-truck.
owner-operator (o/o)
    Self-employed independent drivers who operate privately owned or leased trucks, as opposed to a company driver.
float shifting
    Shifting gears without using the clutch pedal. also called «slip shifting» or «dead sticking».
chip van
    Specially designed bulk dry van with open top for wood byproducts.
truck stop electrification (tse)
    The capability to connect a truck to a land-based electric power supply («shore power») at a truck stop. eliminates the need for engine idling while parked, and in the case of idleaire, also suppl...
    This term is derived from the number of tires that the typical otr tractor-trailer configuration has. see also semi-truck.
federal gross weight bridge formula
    lift axle;
      irregular route; long-haul;
      sleeper berth

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