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Глоссарий по криптовалютам и блокчейну - страница 1

fiat currency
    Any money declared by a government to be to be valid for meeting a financial obligation, like usd or eur
    Are blockchains that are interoperable with each other and with bitcoin, avoiding liquidity shortages, market fluctuations, fragmentation, security breaches and outright fraud associated with alte...
chain linking
    Chain linking is the process of connecting two blockchains with each other, thus allowing transactions between the chains to take place. this will allow blockchains like bitcoin to communicate wit...
block (on the bitcoin blockchain)
    Data is permanently recorded in the bitcoin network through files called blocks. a block is a record of some or all of the most recent bitcoin transactions that have not yet been recorded in any p...
consensus (bitcoin’s process consensus)
    Developers suggest bitcoin improvements/modifications, small or big, proposals on github, bitcointalk, reddit, mailing lists, etc. discussion on this level is critical to enable smooth runtime con...
double spending
    Double-spending is the result of successfully spending some money more than once. bitcoin is the first to implemented a solution in early 2009 which protects against double spending by verifying e...
    Ethereum is an open software platform based on blockchain technology that enables developers to write smart contracts and build and deploy decentralized applications(dapps). the native token of th...
dapp (decentralized application)
    For an application to be considered a dapp or decentralized application it must meet the following criteria (1) application must be completely open-source, it must operate autonomously, and with n...
daos (decentralized autonomous organization)
    Fully automated business entity (fab), or distributed autonomous corporation/company (dac) is a decentralized network of narrow-ai autonomous agents which perform an output-maximizing production f...
    Is a cryptocurrency that runs on a (1) global peer to peer network, is (2) decentralised (no single entity can control it), it’s (3) open source (wallet & transaction verification), (4) bypassing ...
sha (secure hash algorithm)
    Is a family of cryptographic hash functions published by the national institute of standards and technology (nist) as a u.s. federal information processing standard (fips). sha256 is an algorithm ...
satoshi nakamoto
    Is a person or group of people who created the bitcoin protocol and reference software, bitcoin core (formerly known as bitcoin-qt). in 2008, nakamoto published a paper on the cryptography mailing...
    Is a proof-of-work system used to limit email spam and denial-of-service attacks, and more recently has become known for its use in bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) as part of the mining algor...
cryptographic hash function
    Ithe cryptographic hash function is a mathematical algorithm that takes a particular input which can be any kind of digital data be it a password or jpeg file and produces a single fixed length ou... криптографическая хеш-функция;
transaction fees (bitcoin)
    May be included with any transfer of bitcoins from one address to another. at the moment, many transactions are typically processed in a way where no fee is expected at all, but for transactions w...
mining (bitcoin)
    Mining is the process of adding transaction records to bitcoin’s public ledger of past transactions or blockchain. this ledger of past transactions is called the blockchain as it is a chain of blo...
proof of work
  1. Pow system/protocol/function is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usu...
proof of stake
    Proof-of-stake (pos) is a method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. while the proof-of-work (pow) method asks users to repeatedly run hashing algor...
ring signature
    Ring signature is a cryptographic technology that could provide a decent level of anonymisation on a blockchain. ring signatures make sure individual transaction outputs on the blockchain can’t be...
    Smart contracts on the blockchain can not access the outside network on their own. therefore oracles sit between a smart contract and the external world, providing the data needed by the smart con...
  1. Solidity is a programming language designed for developing smart contracts. its syntax is similar to that of javascript, and it is intended to compile into bytecode for the ethereum virtual ma... монолитность;
spv(simplified payment verification) client
    Spv clients are bitcoin lightweight clients which do not download and store the whole blockchain locally. these wallets provide a way to verify payments without having to download the complete blo...
state channel
    State channels are interactions which get conducted off the blockchain without significantly increasing the risk of any participant. moving these interactions off of the chain without requiring an...
merkle tree
    The basic idea behind merkle tree is to have some piece of data that is linking to another. you can do this by linking things together with a cryptographic hash. the content itself can be used to ...
    The interplanetary file system (ipfs) is a hypermedia distribution protocol, addressed by content and identities. ipfs enables the creation of completely distributed applications. it aims to make ...
lightning network
    The lightning network is a decentralized network using smart contract functionality on the blockchain to enable instant payments across a network of participants. the lightning network will allow ...
    The smallest unit of bitcoin, equal to 0.00000001 btc
economic finality
    A block or state can be considered finalized if it can be shown that if any incompatible block or state is also finalized (eg. two different blocks at the same height) then there exists evidence t...
    A child of a parent of a parent of a block that is not the parent, or more generally a child of an ancestor that is not itself an ancestor. if a is an ommer of b, b is a nibling (niece/nephew) of ...
slashing condition
    A condition which, if triggered by a validator, causes the validator`s deposit to be destroyed.
patricia tree (or trie)
    A data structure which stores the state of every account. the trie is built by starting from each individual node, then splitting the nodes into groups of up to 16 and hashing each group, then mak...
uniquely attributable fault
    A fault such that there exists clear evidence which can be used to determine exactly which validator committed the fault. for example, liveness faults are not uniquely attributable because if a me...
  1. A hash function (or hash algorithm) is a process by which a piece of data of arbitrary size (could be anything; a piece of text, a picture, or even a list of other hashes) is processed into a ... электрические шумы;; электромагнитные помехи;; хешировать;
proof of work nonce
    A meaningless value in a block which can be adjusted in order to try to satisfy the proof of work condition
    A participant in proof of stake consensus. validators need to submit a security deposit in order to get included in the validator set.
конфиденциальный набор ключей;
computational infeasibility
    A process is computationally infeasible if it would take an impracticably long time (eg. billions of years) to do it for anyone who might conceivably have an interest in carrying it out. generally...
security deposit
    A quantity of ether that a user deposits into a mechanism (often a proof of stake consensus mechanism, though this can also be used for other applications) that a user normally expects to be able ...
fraud proof
    A set of data, usually a part of a block plus some extra "witness data" (eg. merkle branches), that can be used to prove that a given block is invalid.
account nonce
    A transaction counter in each account. this prevents replay attacks where a transaction sending eg. 20 coins from a to b can be replayed by b over and over to continually drain a`s balance.
censorship fault
    A validator failing to accept valid messages from other validators
liveness fault
    A validator failing to submit a message that according to the protocol they should have submitted (or submitting a message later than they should have)
invalidity fault
    A validator sending a message that a computer running the correct algorithm could not possibly send, unless its internal state is manipulated with in some way other than rewinding.
  1. A validator sending two messages that contradict each other, or more precisely a validator sending two messages that a validator running the correct algorithm could only send if it sends one m...
externally owned account
    An account controlled by a private key. externally owned accounts cannot contain evm code.
loose coupling
  1. Chains a and b are loosely coupled if (i) any state of a points to some state of b (and vice versa), and (ii) they are not tightly coupled.

  2. Слабая комплексация
tight coupling
    Chains a and b are tightly coupled if (i) any state of a points to some state of b (and vice versa), and (ii) a state of a should not be considered admissible unless both that state itself and the...
uncle inclusion mechanism
    Ethereum has a mechanism where a block may include its uncles; this ensures that miners that create blocks that do not quite get included into the main chain can still get rewarded.
evm code
    Ethereum virtual machine code, the programming language in which accounts on the ethereum blockchain can contain code. the evm code associated with an account is executed every time a message is s...
data availability
    The property of a state that any node connected to the network could download any specific part of the state that they wish to.