Глоссарий

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Hardfork

Глоссарий по криптовалютам и блокчейну
    A hardfork is a change to the blockchain protocol that makes previously invalid blocks/transactions valid, and therefore requires all users to upgrade their clients. the most recent example of a hardfork in public blockchains is the ethereum hardfork which happened on july 21st, 2016. the hardfork changed the ethereum protocol, therefore second blockchain emerged(ethereum classic, etc) which supports the old ethereum protocol. in order to continue existing etc needs miners, which would validate the transactions on the blockchain




Blockchain, английский
  1. A blockchain is a type of distributed ledger, comprised of unchangable, digitally recorded data in packages called blocks (rather like collating them on to a single sheet of paper). each block is then ‘chained’ to the next block, using a cryptographic signature. this allows block chains to be used like a ledger, which can be shared and accessed by anyone with the appropriate permissions.

  2. Shared, trusted, public ledger of transactions, that everyone can inspect but which no single user controls. it is a cryptographed, secure, tamper resistant distributed database. it solves a complex mathematical problem to exist. a blockchain is a perfect place to store value, identities, agreements, property rights, credentials, etc. once you put something like a bitcoin into it, it will stay there forever. it is decentralized, disintermediated, cheap and censorship resistant. applications of blockchain: bitcoin (cryptocurrency), namecoin (wants to replace the entire dns system of the internet), or sia (a decentralized cloud storage), ethereum (turing complete virtual machine where you can run any smart contract); any centralized service like ebay, dropbox can potentially be built in a decentralized way using blockchain technology, considerably lowering transaction costs


Transactions, английский
    Операции (в снс; понятия, относящиеся к реализации товаров и услуг экономическими единицами, получающими за это определенную компенсацию; по характеру объектов подразделяются на текущие, т. е. предназначенные для немедленного использования или потребления, и капитальные операции, т. е. по увеличению национального богатства)


Turing completeness, английский
    A machine is turing complete if it can perform any calculation that any other programmable computer is capable of. all modern computers are turing-complete in this sense. the ethereum virtual machine (evm) which runs on the ethereum blockchain is turing complete. thus it can process any “computable function”. it is, in short, able to do what you could do with any conventional computer and programming language


Consensus (general), английский
    A fundamental problem in distributed computing is to achieve overall system reliability in the presence of a number of faulty processes. this often requires processes to agree on some data value that is needed during computation. the consensus problem requires agreement among a number of processes for a single data value. some of the processes may fail or be unreliable in other ways, so consensus protocols must be fault tolerant. the processes must somehow put forth their candidate values, communicate with one another, and agree on a single consensus value. the bitcoin blockchain uses electricity to ensure the security of the system. it creates an economic system where you can only participate by incurring costs, proof of work (pow). you do that for the possibility of reward/bitcoin. if you spend money, and you play fair by the rules, you get money back. if you cheat, you lose money. it doesn’t pay to cheat. this simple game theoretical equilibrium is the core of the bitcoin consensus algorithm