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Cryptographic hash function

Глоссарий по криптовалютам и блокчейну
    Ithe cryptographic hash function is a mathematical algorithm that takes a particular input which can be any kind of digital data be it a password or jpeg file and produces a single fixed length output. some examples of different hash function algorithms are md5, md4 or sha256. the last one is used in the bitcoin protocol. main properties: (1) easy to compute hash value for any given message (2) infeasible to generate a message from its hash except by trying all possible input combinations(brute force attack) (3) infeasible to modify a message without changing the hash (4) infeasible to find two different messages with the same hash (5) deterministic so the same message always results in the same hash. cryptographic hash functions have many information security applications, notably in digital signatures, message authentication codes (macs), and other forms of authentication. they can also be used as ordinary hash functions, to index data in hash tables, for fingerprinting, to detect duplicate data or uniquely identify files, and as checksums to detect accidental data corruption

Криптографическая хеш-функция, русский

Cryptographic, английский

Mathematical, английский
  1. Analyzer, numerical integrator and computer эвм «маньяк»

  2. Математический

Particular, английский
    A частный; конкретный grammar partitioned a разделённый на части sequence 1 одна из базовых операций компьютерной обработки текстов; в каче- стве данных берутся текст либо сегмент текста, грамматика и цель разбора, а на выходе получается удовлетворяющее цели множество значений категориальной отнесённости сегментов в виде, например, дерева разбора. 2 применяется запоминание также и гипотез, выдвигаемых при разбо- ре, и результатов их проверки – м. кэй. 3 используется, в частности, для разбора арифметических выражений. partitioning n членение sentence ~ членение предложений (напр., при переводе )

Algorithms, английский
    Complex mathematical formulae or rules used to solve complex problems in cctv they are used to achieve digital compression of a video picture.

Properties, английский

Combinations, английский
    The number of combinations of n things taken k at a time is the number of ways of picking a subset of k of the n things, without replacement, and without regard to the order in which the elements of the subset are picked. the number of such combinations is nck = n!/(k!(n−k)!), where k! (pronounced "k factorial") is k×(k−1)×(k−2)× … × 1. the numbers nck are also called the binomial coefficients. from a set that has n elements one can form a total of 2n subsets of all sizes. for example, from the set {a, b, c}, which has 3 elements, one can form the 23 = 8 subsets {}, {a}, {b}, {c}, {a,b}, {a,c}, {b,c}, {a,b,c}. because the number of subsets with k elements one can form from a set with n elements is nck, and the total number of subsets of a set is the sum of the numbers of possible subsets of each size, it follows that nc0+nc1+nc2+ … +ncn = 2n. the calculator has a button (ncm) that lets you compute the number of combinations of m things chosen from a set of n things. to use the button, first type the value of n, then push the ncm button, then type the value of m, then press the "=" button.

Deterministic, английский

Information, английский
  1. Knowledge of a particular event or situation, or knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact.

  2. Информация

  3. Facts about something  have you any information about the treatment of sunburn?  the police won’t give us any information about how the accident happened.  you haven’t given me enough information about when your symptoms started.  that’s a very useful piece or bit of information. (note: no plural: some information; a piece of information.)

  4. N информация | attr. информационный flow, structure source of ~ источник информации 1 ранее использовался в более широком значении как ‘умозаключе- ние’. 2 получение выводных данных в процессе обработки информации и/или языка и само выводное знание, умозаключение; мыслительная операция, в ходе которой человек выходит за пределы данных в тек- сте сведений и получает новую информацию. 3 аффикс, вставляемый внутрь корня слова при словообразовании или словоизменении.

  5. In admiralty courts, implies a clause introduced into a citation, intimating that in the event of a party cited not appearing, the court will proceed in his absence.

Signatures, английский
    Signatures. the very earliest prints were not signed at all, although by the later part of the fifteenth century many artists indicated their authorship of a print by incorporating a signature or monogram into the matrix design, what is called “signed in

Authentication, английский
  1. In the context of bonds, refers to the validation of a bond certificate.

  2. Мера безопасности, использующая стандарт шифрования данных (des), направленная на то, чтобы передача и сообщение edi не были подделаны или изменены.

  3. A communications procedure designed to confirm genuine signals, and hence identify spurious ones. automated mutual-assistance vessel rescue: a u.s. coast guard system that coordinates ocean search and rescue efforts. based on a worldwide plot of merchant vessel locations. at 30

Transaction fees (bitcoin), английский
    May be included with any transfer of bitcoins from one address to another. at the moment, many transactions are typically processed in a way where no fee is expected at all, but for transactions which draw coins from many bitcoin addresses and therefore have a large data size, a small transaction fee is usually expected. the transaction fee is processed by and received by the bitcoin miner. when a new bitcoin block is generated with a successful hash, the information for all of the transactions is included with the block, and all transaction fees are collected by that user creating the block, who is free to assign those fees to himself. transaction fees are voluntary on the part of the person making the bitcoin transaction, as the person attempting to make a transaction can include any fee or none at all in the transaction. on the other hand, nobody mining new bitcoins necessarily needs to accept the transactions and include them in the new block being created. the transaction fee is, therefore, an incentive on the part of the bitcoin user to make sure that a particular transaction will get included in the next block which is generated. it is envisioned that over time the cumulative effect of collecting transaction fees will allow somebody creating new blocks to “earn” more bitcoins than will be mined from new bitcoins created by the new block itself. this is also an incentive to keep trying to create new blocks even if the value of the newly created block from the mining activity is zero in the far future

Hashcash, английский
    Is a proof-of-work system used to limit email spam and denial-of-service attacks, and more recently has become known for its use in bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) as part of the mining algorithm. hashcash was proposed in may 1997 by adam back