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Glossary Of Laser Terminology

absorption of radiation
    - receiving electromagnetic radiation by interaction with the material, and transforming it to different form, which is usually heat (rise in temperature). the absorption process is dependent on t...
optical pumping
  1. - the excitation of the active medium in a laser by the application of light, rather than electrical discharge. light can be from a conventional source like xenon or krypton lamp, or from anot...
blink reflex
    (see aversion response).
semiconductor laser
  1. (see diode laser). a type of laser which produces its output from semiconductor materials such as gaas.

  2. A laser in which injection of current into a semiconductor diode produces lig...
rotating lens
    A beam delivery lens designed to move in a circle and thus rotate the laser beam around a circle.
bins
    A bin has a bandpass filter response with certain frequency bandwidth. a spectral analysis requires the signal to be divided into a large number of bins. the signal power spectral density at each ...
radiometry
  1. A branch of science which deals with the measurement of radiation.

  2. The measurement of radiation in the optical spectrum, which includes
радиометрия;
phased-array transmitter
    A collection of spaced antennas, dishes, mirrors or lenses that when properly excited in the correct phase, can act in unison with the diffraction-limited beam performance of a single element as l...
phased-array receiver
    A collection of spaced antennas, dishes, mirrors or lenses that when the individuals signals collected are properly summed in the correct phase, can act in unison with the diffraction-limited beam...
corrected lens
    A compound lens that is made measurably free of aberrations through the careful selection of its dimensions and materials.
axicon lens
    A conical lens which, when followed by a conventional lens, can focus laser light to a ring shape.
ktp (potassium titanyl phosphate)
    A crystal used to change the wavelength of an nd:yag laser from 1060 nm (infrared) to 532 nm (green).
q-switch
    A device that has the effect of a shutter to control the laser resonator`s ability to oscillate. control allows one to spoil the resonator`s "q-factor", keeping it low to prevent lasing ...
x-ray laser
    A device that uses stimulated emission to produce coherent x -rays.
gated pulse
    A discontinuous burst of laser light, made by timing (gating) a continuous wave output, usually in fractions of a second.
laser pulse
    A discontinuous burst of laser radiation, as opposed to a continuous beam. a true laser pulse achieves higher peak powers than that attainable in a cw output.
electromagnetic wave
    A disturbance which propagates outward from an electric charge that oscillates or is accelerated. includes radio waves, x-rays, gamma rays; and infrared, ultraviolet, and visible light.
light regulation
    A form of power regulation in which output power is monitored and maintained at a constant level by controlling discharge current.
argon laser
  1. A gas laser in which argon ions are the active medium. this laser emits in the blue - green visible spectrum, primarily at 488 and 515 nm..

  2. A laser used in sealing blood vessels and...
carbon dioxide (co2) laser
    A gas laser in which co2 molecules are the active medium. this laser emits in the infrared spectrum, with the strongest emission line at 10.6 μm. it can be operated in either cw or pulsed...
helium-neon (he-ne) laser
    A gas laser in which helium (he) and neon (ne) atoms are the active medium. this laser emits primarily in the visible spectrum, primarily at 633 [nm], but also have some lines in the near infrared...
excimer laser
    A gas laser which emits in the uv spectrum. the active medium is an "excited dimer" which does not have a stable ground state.
beam bender
    A hardware assembly containing an optical device, such as a mirror, capable of changing the direction of a laser beam; used to re-point the beam and used in "folded", compact laser syste...
aiming beam
    A laser (or other light source) used as a guide light. used coaxially with infrared or other invisible light, may also be a reduced level of the actual laser used for surgery or for other applicat...
gas discharge laser
    A laser containing a gaseous lasing medium in a glass tube in which a constant flow of gas replenishes the molecules depleted by the electricity or chemicals used for excitation.
scanning laser
    A laser having a time-varying direction, origin or pattern of propagation with respect to a stationary frame of reference.
axial-flow laser
    A laser in which an axial flow of gas is maintained through the tube to replace those gas molecules depleted by the electrical discharge used to excite the gas molecules to the lasing.
gas laser
    A laser in which the active medium is a gas. the gas can be composed of molecules (like co2), atoms (like he-ne) or ions (like ar+).
газовый лазер; газовый оптический квантовый генератор активной средой которого является газ или смесь газов;
ion laser
    A laser in which the active medium is composed of ions of a nobel gas (gas such as argon or krypton.). the gas is usually excited by high discharge voltage at the ends of a small bore tube.
solid state laser
    A laser in which the active medium is in solid state (usually not including semiconductor lasers).
diode laser
  1. A laser that emits coherent light through the injection of electric current into a semiconductor diode. diode

  2. A semiconductor diode that generates laser light. a current flowing thr...
pulsed laser
    A laser which delivers energy in the form of a single pulse, or train, of laser pulses.
q-switched laser
    A laser which store energy in the active medium, to produce short pulse with high energy. it is done by blocking the resonator ability to oscillate, keeping the "q-factor" of the optical...
tunable dye laser
  1. A laser whose active medium is a liquid dye, pumped by another laser or flash lamps, to produce various colors of light. the color of light may be tuned by adjusting optical tuning elements an...
embedded laser
    A laser with an assigned class number higher than the inherent capability of the laser system in which it is incorporated, where the system`s lower classification is appropriate to the engineering...
repetitively pulsed laser
    A laser with multiple pulses of radiant energy occurring in sequence with a prf > 1 hz.
pigment epithelium
    A layer of cells at the back of the retina containing pigment granules, i.e., a cloud of charged particles surrounding a laser impact.
meniscus lens
    A lens which has one side convex, the other concave.
optical density
  1. A logarithmic expression for the attenuation produced by an attenuating medium, such as an eye protection filter.

  2. A logarithmic measure of the power attenuation, or the refractive i... density;
pulse position modulation (ppm)
    A means of encoding digital data by varying the position of a bit in a word that has m bit positions.
holography
    A medium for bending and focusing light that uses the interference of monochromatic objects and reference waves to record and reproduce multiple two-dimensional images for three-dimensional viewin... holografía; голография;; голографирование; получение голограмм; голография область науки и технику а также метод записи волнового фронта;
lossy medium
    A medium which absorbs or scatters radiation passing through it.
picosecond
  1. A period of time equal to 10-12 seconds.

  2. Пикосекунда
protective housing
    A protective housing is a device designed to prevent access to radiant power or energy.
coaxial gas
    A shield of inert gas flowing over the target material to prevent plasma oxidation and absorption, to blow away debris, and to control heat reaction. the gas jet has the same axis as the beam so t...
nd:yag laser
    A solid-state laser in which neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet is used as a laser active medium, to produce 1064 nm wavelength. yag is a synthetic crystal.
nd:glass laser
    A solid-state laser of neodymium glass offering high power in short pulses in which a nd doped glass rod is used as a laser active medium, to produce 1064 nm wavelength.
laser rod
    A solid-state, rod-shaped lasing medium in which ion excitation is caused by a source of intense light (optical pumping) such as a flashlamp. various materials are used for the rod, the earliest o...
population inversion
  1. A state in which a substance has been energized, or excited, so that more atoms or molecules are in a higher excited state than in a lower resting state. this is a necessary prerequisite for l...
z-cavity
    A term referring to the shape of the optical layout of the tubes and resonator inside a laser.
flash lamp
    A tube typically filled with krypton or xenon. produces a high intensity white light in short duration pulses.
optically pumped lasers
    A type of laser that derives energy from another light source such as a xenon or krypton flashlamp or other laser source.
radian
    A unit of angular measure equal to the angle subtended at the center of a circle by a chord whose length is equal to the radius of the circle.
milliamperes (ma)
    A unit of electrical current equal to one-thousandth of an ampere. milliradian (mrad)
electron volt [ev]
    A unit of energy
joule (j)
    A unit of energy (1 watt-second) used to describe the rate of energy delivery. it is equal to 1 watt-second or 0.239 calorie. a basic unit of energy. a 1 watt transmitter radiates 1 joule of energ...
watt/cm2
    A unit of irradiance used in measuring the amount of power per area of absorbing surface, or per area of cw laser beam.
angstrom
  1. A unit of measure of wavelength equal to 10-10 meter, 0.1 nanometer, or 10-4 micrometer; no longer widely used nor recognized in the si system of units.

  2. Unit to define wavelength of...
milliwatt (mw)
    A unit of power equal to one-thousandth of a watt. mode locked
electromagnetic radiation (spectrum)
    A wave which propagates in vacuum with the speed of light, and composed of simultaneous oscillations of electric field and magnetic field perpendicular to each other, and perpendicular to the dire...
yag (yttrium aluminum garnet)
    A widely used solid-state crystal which is composed of yttrium and aluminum oxides which is doped with a small amount if the rare-earth neodymium.
tea laser
    An acronym for transversely excited atmospheric laser. this co2 gas laser uses a transverse flow of gas and operates at higher pressures than other gas lasers, generally near atmospheric pressure....
pockel`s cell
    An electro-optical crystal used as a q-switch.
secured enclosure
    An enclosure to which casual access is impeded by an appropriate means (e.g., door secured by lock magnetically or electrically operated, by a latch, or by screws).
limiting exposure duration
    An exposure duration which is specifically limited by the design or intended use(s).
extended source
    An extended source of radiation can be resolved into a geometrical image in contrast with a point source of radiation, which cannot be resolved into a geometrical image. a light source whose diame... протяженный источник;
lambertian surface
    An ideal diffuse surface whose emitted or reflected radiance (brightness) is dependent on the viewing angle.
calorimeter
    An instrument which measures the energy, usually as heat, generated by absorption of the laser beam.
калориметр;
multichannel spectrum analyzer (mcsa)
    An instrument with a large number of channels for analyzing a signal in small frequency bins. used for rapid radio frequency analysis.
multichannel scaler
    An instrument with a large number of channels for analyzing a signal in small time slots. used for nuclear, particle and photon counting.
heterodyne detection
    An interferometer in which the two signals differ in frequency and cause a beat frequency to be produced. usually, one signal is a powerful local oscillator.
failsafe interlock
    An interlock where the failure of a single mechanical or electrical component of the interlock will cause the system to go into, or remain in, a safe mode.
beam expander
    An optical device that increases beam diameter while decreasing beam divergence (spread). in its simplest form, consists of two lenses, the first to diverge the beam and the second to re-collimate...
beam splitter
    An optical device used to divide the light from a laser into two separate beams -the reference beam and the object beam. it consists of a partially transparent mirror that reflects part of the las... separador de haz .; divisor de haz; расщепитель пучка; устройство для расщепления пучка;;
light bucket
    An optical receiving telescope that collects photons but is not diffraction limited. its effective field-of-view is larger than a diffraction limited telescope and cannot discriminate particularly...
beam divergence
  1. Angle of beam spread measured in radians or milliradians (1 milliradian = 3.4 minutes-of-arc or approximately 1 mil). for small angles where the cord is approximately equal to the arc, the bea...
ar coatings
    Antireflection coatings are used on optical components to suppress unwanted reflections.