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Thermodynamic entropy

Глоссарий по кибернетике
    The quantity of energy no longer available to do physical work. every real process converts energy into both work or a condensed form of energy and waste. some waste may be utilized fn processes other than those generating it (->recycling) but the ultimate waste which can no longer support any process is energy in the form of dispersed heat (->second law of thermodynamics). all physical processes, despite any local and temporal concentration of energy they may achieve, contribute to the increased overall dispersion of heat. ill, ii i ii ii `! i"i !i " :1 76 entropy therefore irreversibly increases in the known universe.

Entropy, английский
  1. Энтропия

  2. Entropy is a measure of the disorganization or information within a system. the entropy is lowest when there is a certain outcome or state, and highest when all the possible states are equally likely. for a discrete system with k states, it is defined as where pi is the probability of being in state i. see also: fuzzy entropy, maximum entropy principle.

  3. ->statistical entropy, a measure of variation, dispersion or diversity; ->thermodynamic entropy, a measure of unusable energy. the similarity between the two types of entropy is merely formal in that both are expressed as the logarithm of a probability. t

  4. The level of disorder in a system.

  5. From the second law of thermodynamics, the measure of disorder in a system.

  6. A measure of the level of disorder or randomness in a closed system. it can be thought of either in the sense of thermodynamic/metabolic processes or the increasing molecular disorder in a structure. it can be thought of as the same process by which erosion occurs when soil is exposed to rain and wind.

Entropy -, английский
    Энтропийная диаграмма

Entropy forward approach, английский
    Метод внесения неупорядоченности

Entropy per second, английский
    Энтропия в секунду

Entropy per symbol, английский
    Энтропия на символ

Entropy unit, английский
    Единица энтропии

Thermodynamic, английский

Thermodynamic activity, английский

Thermodynamic multiplicity, английский
    Термодинамическая вероятность (число путей размещения микроскопических частиц, напр., атомов в кристаллической решетке, которые создают данную макроскопическую систему)

Thermodynamic system, английский

Thermodynamics, английский
  1. Термодинамика

  2. That branch of physics which is concerned with the storage, transformation and dissipation of energy (including the flow of heat from which the term is derived). its first law, or the conservation law, states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. this law provides the basis for all quantitative accounts of energy, regardless of its form, and makes energy the most important concept in physics. its second law, or the entropy law, states that in all processes some of the energy involved irreversibly looses its ability to do work and is degraded in quality. the latter is called thermodynamic entropy whose extreme form is dispersed heat and manifested in a uniform temperature distribution. another statement of this second law is that in any process entropy never decreases. the irreversibility of physical processes implicit in this law makes the entropy law probably the most important law in understanding terrestrial processes including living organisms and social forms. the third law of thermodynamics, or the asymptotic law, states that all processes slow down as they operate closer to the thermodynamic equilibrium making it difficult to reach that equilibrium in practice. this law suggests that the powerful and fast changes which are typical of technology and characteristic of living forms of organization are bound to occur only at levels far removed from thermodynamic equilibrium. third lak ~ therodynamics

  3. A branch of science about the relationship between heat, work, temperature and energy.

Thermodynamics research laboratory, английский
    Научно-исследовательская лаборатория термодинамики (пенсильванского университета)

Generating, английский
    A rapid roughing process to quickly remove material from a lens. accomplished by cutting tools on a machine. generator, free-form – a type of computercontrolled generator with at least three axes of movement that can cut most continuous lens surface shapes to a level of precision and smoothness that requires only minimal polishing with a free-form polisher. generator, traditional – a type of generator with either two or three axes of movement that can cut only basic spherical and sphero-cylindrical lens surface shapes to a minimal level of smoothness that requires additional fining with a cylinder machine.

Concentration, английский
  1. The amount of a substance present in a certain amount of soil, water, air, food, blood, hair, urine, breath, or any other media.

  2. Concentración

  3. N концентрация

  4. Концентрация; кучность

  5. The area covered by the diamonds as compared with the total area of the cutting surface of a surface-set bit.

  6. The volume of diamonds, expressed in percent, compared to the total volume of the crown of an im pregnated bit

  7. The percentage of acid compared with the volume of water added to produce a dilute solution.

  8. Концентрация. количество вещества, выраженное в единицах массы или молярных единицах, в единице объема жидкости или единице массы твердого тела. con. dence interval

  9. Концентрация. количество вещества, выраженное в единицах массы или молярных единицах, в единице объема жидкости или единице массы твердого тела.

Contribute, английский
    Содействовать; способствовать; сотрудничать

Dispersion, английский
  1. Увеличение ширины импульса сигнала при его распространении по оптоволокну. основной фактор, ограничивающий полосу пропускания многомодового оптоволокна.

  2. Дисперсия.

  3. Эффект расширения световых импульсов во время их передачи по оптическому волокну. дисперсия пропорциональна длине кабеля (см. также хроматическая дисперсия).

  4. Refers to the spread of values observed for a variable. the standard deviation is a measure of dispersion, in contrast to the mean which is a measure of central tendency or location.

  5. The cause of bandwidth limitations in fiber. in multimode systems, modal dispersion is caused by differential optical path lengths known as differential path delay. for singlemode systems, chromatic dispersion is a combination of material dispersion (caused by the line width of the laser source) and waveguide dispersion (caused by the difference in the speed of light in the core and the cladding of the fiber). another type of dispersion is polarization mode dispersion (pmd), which is caused by random vibration, temperature variations, and bending of the fibers known as birefringence

  6. (1) the variation in the refractive index of a medium as a function of wavelength. (2) the property of an optical system which causes the separation of the monochromatic components of radiation.

  7. The dependence of the phase velocity in a medium on the optical frequency or the propagation mode

  8. The stretching of light pulses as they travel in an optical fiber, which increases their duration. the temporal spreading of a light signal in an optical waveguide caused by light signals traveling at different speeds through a fiber either due to modal or chromatic effects.

  9. This occurs when white light is split into separate wave lengths and component colors.

  10. Модовая дисперсия dispersion-compensating fiber волокно с компенсацией дисперсии

  11. Also known as "fire," dispersion refers to the separation of white light into different colors.

  12. Separation of white light into spectral colours, each of which vibrates at a different frequency. also called fire.

  13. Sometimes referred to as fire, dispersion is the break-up of white light into a spectrum of colors.

  14. 1. a system consisting of finely divided particles and the medium in which they are distributed. 2. separation of light into colors by diffraction or refraction. 3. a qualitative estimation of the separation and uniform distribution of fibers in the liquid during the production of a wet-formed nonwoven fabric.

  15. Losses`, pi потери воды при капельном орошении за счет фильтрации за пределы очага увлажнения

  16. The separation of light of different frequencies due to different degrees of refraction

  17. In acoustics, variation of wave phase with frequency.

  18. In acoustics, variation of wave phase with frequency.7

Technological determinism, английский
    The belief that technology develops (-)development) by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available, and must therefore be regarded as an autonomous (->autonomy) system controlling and ultimately permeating all other subsystems of society. evidence for the first proposition is largely taken from the natural history of technology, its progressive character and the coocurance of independent (->independence) inventions. evidence for the second proposition stems from the unwarranted generalization that everything that is invented is ultimately installed and ignores human playfulness, individual and collective interests and man`s cognitive limitations. the conclusion is nevertheless supported by the fact that technology has indeed penetrated all spheres of human existence from interpersonal communication, to definitions of the quality of life in technological terms.

Transcendence, английский
    Being beyond the reach or apprehension of experience. its opposite is immanence (kant). a state of transcendence indicates that a cognitive system is not powerful enough (->theory of logical types) to cope with or represent the information present, e.g., the experience of paradox.