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Глоссарий по неразрушающему контролю в авиации

Терминология, принятая в аэрокосмической области по неразрушающему контролю. Глоссарий будет полезен переводчикам, работающим со стандартами, сертификацией, проведением испытаний, спецификациями в авиации.



absolute coil
  1. Coil that responds to the electromagnetic properties of that region of the test part within the magnetic field of the coil, without comparison to the response of a second coil at a different l...
acceptance criterion
  1. Benchmark against which test results are to be compared for purposes of establishing the functional acceptability of a part or system being examined.

  2. Эталон, с которым необходимо ср...
acceptance standard
  1. Specimen, similar to the product to be tested, containing natural or artificial discontinuities that are well defined and similar in size or extent to the maximum acceptable in the product. ex...
acoustic emission activity
  1. Number of bursts (or events, if the appropriate conditions are fulfilled) detected during a test or part of a test.

  2. Количество всплесков (или событий, если выполняются соответствующ...
acoustic emission count
  1. Number of times the signal amplitude exceeds the preset reference threshold. sometimes called ringdown counts.

  2. Сколько раз амплитуда сигнала превышала заданный опорный порог. иногда...
acoustic emission rate
  1. Number of times the amplitude has exceeded the threshold in a specified unit of time.

  2. Количество раз, когда амплитуда превышала пороговое значение в указанную единицу времени.
adaptive thresholding
  1. Threshold value varying with inconstant background gray level.

  2. Пороговое значение варьируется в зависимости от непостоянного уровня серого фона.

  3. Threshold value varying w...
alternating current magnetization
  1. Magnetization by a magnetic field generated when alternating current is flowing.

  2. Намагничивание магнитным полем, возникающим при протекании переменного тока.

  3. In magnetic ...
ambient operating range
  1. Range of ambient temperatures over which an instrument is designed to operate within published performance specifications. ampere (a): si unit of electric current. ampere per meter (a/m): si c...
angle beam testing
  1. Technique of ultrasonic testing in which transmission of ultrasound is at an acute angle to the entry surface.

  2. Метод ультразвукового контроля, при котором передача ультразвука проис...
angle beam transducer
  1. Transducer that transmits or receives ultrasonic energy at an acute angle to the surface. this may be done to achieve special effects such as setting up transverse or surface waves by mode con...
angle of refraction
  1. Angle between the beam axis of a refracted wave and the normal to the refracting interface.

  2. Угол между осью луча преломленной волны и нормалью к преломляющей границе раздела.
array transducer
  1. Transducer made up of several piezoelectric elements individually connected so that the signals they transmit or receive may be treated separately or combined as desired. see also phased array...
artificial source
  1. Point where elastic waves are created to simulate an acoustic emission event. the term also denotes a device used to create the waves.

  2. Точка, в которой создаются упругие волны для и...
backscatter imaging
  1. In radiologic testing, a family of radioscopic techniques that use backscatter. backscattering, infrared: reflection of thermal energy, whether generated by the ground and reflecting off cloud...
boundary echo
  1. Reflection of an ultrasonic wave from an interface. bq: becquerel.

  2. Отражение ультразвуковой волны от границы раздела. бк: беккерель.

  3. In ultrasonic testing, reflection of ...
brehmsstrahlung
  1. Electromagnetic radiation produced when electrons’ path and kinetic energy brings them close to the positive fields of atomic nuclei — as when, for example, electrons strike a target provided ...
burst emission
  1. Qualitative term denoting acoustic emission when bursts are observed. opposite of continuous emission.

  2. Качественный термин, обозначающий акустическую эмиссию при наблюдении всплеско...
burst rise time
  1. Time interval between the first threshold crossing and the maximum amplitude of the burst. c cscan: presentation technique applied to acoustic data and displaying an image of two-dimensional t...
casette cast structure
  1. Internal physical structure of a casting evidenced by shape, orientation of grains, and segregation of impurities. casette, film: lightproof container for holding radiologic film in position d...
cathode ray
  1. Stream of electrons emitted by a heated filament and projected in a more or less confined beam under the influence of a magnetic or electric field. celsius (centigrade): a relative scale of te...
circumferential coil
  1. See encircling coil.

  2. См. окружающую катушку.

  3. See coil, encircling.
cold cathode ionization gage
  1. Pressure measuring gage for low pressures, in the range of 13.3 mpa to below 0.13 npa (10–4 torr to below 10–12 torr), that works by measuring a discharge current associated with the ionizatio...
comparator coils
  1. In electromagnetic testing, two or more coils electrically connected in series opposition and arranged so that there is no mutual induction (coupling) between them. any electromagnetic conditi...
compensator blocks
  1. Material added to regions of a test object to flatten its radiologic test image.

  2. Материал, добавленный к областям объекта испытаний, чтобы сгладить его радиологическое изображение.<...
complex plane diagram
  1. Graphical presentation of complex quantities where the real and imaginary components are represented along the horizontal and vertical axes, respectively. types of complex plane diagrams inclu...
continuous emission
  1. Qualitative term applied to ongoing acoustic emission in which the bursts or pulses are not individually discernible — for example, emission from a leak.

  2. Качественный термин, примен...
corner effect
  1. Strong reflection obtained when an ultrasonic beam is directed toward the intersection of two or three intersecting surfaces.

  2. Сильное отражение получается, когда ультразвуковой луч ...
coupling coefficient
  1. Fraction of magnetic flux from one circuit (test coil) that threads a second circuit (test object); the ratio of impedance of the coupling to the square root of the product of the total impeda...
cross talk
  1. Unwanted signal leakage (acoustical or electrical) across an intended barrier, such as leakage between the transmitting and receiving elements of a dual transducer. also called cross noise and...
crushed core
  1. Mechanically deformed inner core of honeycomb composite components.

  2. Механически деформированное внутреннее ядро сотовых композитных компонентов.
crystal mosaic
  1. Multiple crystals mounted in the same surface on one holder and connected so as to cause all to vibrate as one unit.

  2. Несколько кристаллов установлены на одной поверхности на одном д...
cumulative bursts
  1. Number of bursts detected from the beginning of a test.

  2. Количество всплесков, обнаруженных с начала теста.
cumulative characteristic distribution
  1. In acoustic emission signal processing, a display of the number of times a characteristic meets a preselected criterion. curie (ci): unit for measurement of the quantity of radioactivity, corr...
current flow technique
  1. Magnetizing by passing current through an object using prods or contact heads. the current may be alternating current or rectified alternating current.

  2. Намагничивание путем пропуска...
current induction technique
  1. Magnetization in which a circulating current is induced in a ring component by a fluctuating magnetic field.

  2. Намагничивание, при котором циркулирующий ток индуцируется в кольцевом к...
depth of penetration
  1. See skin effect and standard depth of penetration.

  2. См. скин-эффект и стандартную глубину проникновения.

  3. See skin effect; effective depth of penetration; standard depth of...
detector coil
  1. See sensing coil. detector, xray: sensor, xray.

  2. См. чувствительную катушку. детектор, рентген: датчик, рентген.

  3. See coil, sensing.
differential coils
  1. Two or more physically adjacent and mutually coupled coils connected in series opposition such that an imbalance between them, causing a signal, will be produced only when the electromagnetic ...
direct current field
    Active magnetic field produced by direct current flowing in a conductor or coil.
direct viewing
  1. (1) viewing of a test object in the viewer’s immediate presence. the term direct viewing is used in the fields of robotics and surveillance to distinguish conventional from remote viewing. (2)...
disbonds
    Separation of bonded surfaces in structures such as skins from honeycomb core structures, patches from aluminum structures and similar adjoining laminated sheet-like materials.
discontinuity characterization
    The process of quantifying the size, shape, orientation, location, growth, or other properties of a discontinuity based on test data.
discontinuity resolution
    Property of a test system that enables the separation of nearby indications in a test specimen.
distal
  1. In a manipulative or interrogating system, of or pertaining to the end opposite from the eyepiece and farthest from the person using the system. objective; tip.

  2. In a manipulative or...
dual transducer
    See send/receive transducer.
eddy current
  1. Electrical current induced in a conductor by a time varying magnetic field.

  2. Electrical current induced in a conductor by a time varying magnetic field.4
eddy current testing
    Nondestructive test technique in which eddy current flow is induced in the test object. changes in the flow caused by variations in the specimen are reflected into a nearby coil, coils, hall effec...
effective penetration
    In a material, the maximum depth at which a test signal can reveal discontinuities.
encircling coil
  1. In electromagnetic testing, a coil or coil assembly that surrounds the test object. such a coil is also called an annular coil, circumferential coil, or feedthrough coil. it is commonly used f...
excitation coil
    Coil that carries the excitation current. also called primary coil or winding. see sensing coil.
expanded sweep
  1. Short duration horizontal sweep positioned to allow close examination of a signal.

  2. Short duration horizontal sweep positioned to allow close examination of a signal.7 559 f
exposure factor
    In x-ray radiologic testing, the quantity that combines source intensity (milliampere), time (usually minute), and distance. it is the product of milliamperage and time divided by distance squared...
felicity effect
    Appearance of significant acoustic emission at a load (or pressure) level below the previous maximum applied.
felicity ratio
    Measurement of the felicity effect. defined as the ratio between (1) the applied load (or pressure) at which acoustic emission reappears during the next application of loading and (2) the previous...
film holder
    See casette, film.
fire damage
    Reduction in strength caused by subsequent heating to alloys of aluminum and detectable using eddy current detection of changes in electrical conductivity.
focused beam
    Sound beam that converges to a cross section smaller than that of the element.
focused transducer
  1. Transducer that produces a focused sound beam.

  2. Transducer that produces a focused sound beam.7
front surface
  1. First surface of the test object encountered by an ultrasonic beam. fullwave

  2. First surface of the test object encountered by an ultrasonic beam.7 g
gauss meter
  1. Gage that measures magnetic flux density in gauss (or tesla).

  2. Tesla meter.
geometric unsharpness
    See unsharpness, geometric.
hall detector
    Semiconductor element that produces an output electromotive force proportional to the product of the magnetic field intensity and a biasing current.
horizontal linearity
  1. Measure of proportionality between positions of indications on the horizontal trace and the physical positions of their corresponding reflectors.

  2. Measure of proportionality between ...
image orthicon
    Television tube that uses the photoemission method. compare vidicon tube.
orthicon;
image quality indicator
    Strip of material of the same composition as that of the test material, representing a percentage of object thickness and provided with a combination of steps, holes, slots, or series of wires. wh...
impact damage
    A condition found in composite layered structures wherein internal disbonding occurs with little external sign of its existence. impedance (z ): opposition that a circuit presents to the flow of a...
impedance analysis
    In electromagnetic testing, an analytical technique that consists of correlating changes in the amplitude, phase, quadrature components, or all of these of a complex test signal voltage to the con...
incident radiation
    Primary radiation striking an object at closest point.
indirect viewing
  1. Visual test during which the light image is mediated through a system of two or more lenses (as in a borescope) or transduced through an electronic signal (as with a charge coupled camera). co...
infrared thermography
  1. Imaging of a temperature field through the emitted infrared radiation. see infrared radiation. compare thermography.

  2. Imaging of a temperature field through the emitted infrared radi...
inherent discontinuities
    Discontinuities produced in the material at the time it is formed (for example, in metal, during solidification from the molten state). 19.12 aerospace nondestructive testing
initial permeability
  1. Slope of the induction curve at zero magnetizing force as the test specimen begins to be magnetized from a demagnetized condition (slope at the origin of the b,h curve before hysteresis is obs...
inside diameter coil
    Coil or coil assembly used for electromagnetic testing by insertion into the test piece, as with an inside-surface probe for tubing. sometimes called bobbin coil or inserted coil.
inspection reliability
    Level of confidence, expressed explicitly in statistical terms or implied in noncritical cases, that is believed to exist while performing nondestructive tests. sometimes expressed in terms of pro...
interface triggering
  1. Triggering the sweep and auxiliary functions from an interface echo occurring after the initial pulse. also called interface synchronization.

  2. Triggering the sweep and auxiliary func...
leakage flux
    (1) magnetic flux of the coil that does not link with the test object. (2) magnetic flux that leaves a saturated or nearly saturated specimen at a discontinuity.




Глоссарий по неразрушающему контролю в авиации


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