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Oil glossary

abrasive wear
    (or cutting wear) comes about when hard surface asperities or hard particles that have embedded themselves into a soft surface and plough grooves into the opposing harder surface, e.g., a journal....
absolute filtration rating
    The diameter of the largest hard spherical particle that will pass through a filter under specified test conditions. this is an indication of the largest opening in the filter elements.
absorbent filter
    A filter medium that holds contaminant by mechanical means.
ac fine test dust (acftd)
    A test contaminant used to assess both filters and the contaminant sensitivity of all types of tribological mechanisms.
acid number
    The quantity of base, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide, that is required to neutralize the acidic constituents in 1 g of sample.
acid sludge
    The residue left after treating petroleum oil with sulfuric acid for the removal of impurities. it is a black, viscous substance containing the spent acid and impurities.
acid treating
    A refining process in which unfinished petroleum products, such as gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oil stocks, are contacted with sulfuric acid to improve their color, odor, and other properti...
additive level
    The total percentage of all additives in an oil. (expressed in % of mass (weight) or % of volume)
additive stability
    The ability of additives in the fluid to resist changes in their performance during storage or use.
adhesive wear
    Is often referred to as galling, scuffing, scoring, or seizing. it happens when sliding surfaces contact one another, causing fragments to be pulled from one surface and to adhere to the other.
adsorbent filter
    A filter medium primarily intended to hold soluble and insoluble contaminants on its surface by molecular adhesion.
adsorptive filtration
    The attraction to, and retention of particles in, a filter medium by electrostatic forces, or by molecular attraction between the particles and the medium.
agglomeration
  1. The potential of the system for particle attraction and adhesion.

  2. The collecting together of tiny suspended particles into a mass of larger size, one which will settle more rapidly.... агломерация;
agma lubricant numbers
    Agma specification covering gear lubricants. the viscosity ranges of the agma numbers (or grades) conform to the international standards organization (iso) viscosity classification system (see iso...
air bleeder
    A device for removal of air from a hydraulic fluid line.
air breather
    A device permitting air movement between atmosphere and the component in/on which it is installed.
воздухосуфлер;
air/oil systems
    A lubrication system in which small measured quantities of oil are introduced into an air/oil mixing device which is connected to a lube line that terminates at a bearing, or other lubrication poi...
air-gap solenoid
    A solenoid that is sealed to prevent leakage of the liquid indo the plunger cavity
almen ep lubricant tester
    A journal bearing machine used for determining the load-carrying capacity or extreme pressure properties (ep) of gear lubricants.
aluminum alloy
    White particles which indicate wear of aluminum component such as a casing wall.
analytical ferrography
    The magnetic precipitation and subsequent analysis of wear debris from a fluid sample this approach involves passing a volume of fluid over a chemically treated microscope slide which is supported...
aniline point
    The minimum temperature for complete miscibility of equal volumes of aniline and the sample under test astm method d611. a product of high aniline point will be low in aromatics and naphthenes and...
anti-foam agent
    One of two types of additives used to reduce foaming in petroleum products: silicone oil to break up large surface bubbles, and various kinds of polymers that decrease the amount of small bubbles ...
anti-friction bearing
    A rolling contact type bearing in which the rotating or moving member is supported or guided by means of ball or roller elements. does not mean without friction.
anti-oxidants
    Prolong the induction period of a base oil in the presence of oxidizing conditions and catalyst metals at elevated temperatures. the additive is consumed and degradation products increase not only...
antistatic additive
    An additive that increases the conductivity of a hydrocarbon fuel to hasten the dissipation of electrostatic charges during high-speed dispensing, thereby reducing the fire/explosion hazard.
antiwear additives
    Improve the service life of tribological elements operating in the boundary lubrication regime. antiwear compounds (for example, zddp and tcp) start decomposing at 90 degrees to 100 degrees c and ...
api engine service categories
    Gasoline and diesel engine oil quality levels established jointly by api, sae, and astm, and sometimes called sae or api/sae categories; formerly called api engine service classifications.
api gravity
    A gravity scale established by the american petroleum institute and in general use in the petroleum industry, the unit being called "the a.p.i. degree." this unit is defined in terms of specific g... плотность (нефтепродукта) в градусах американского нефтяного института;
aqueous decontamination
    Removal of a chemical or biological hazard with a water-base solution
asperities
    Microscopic projections on metal surfaces resulting from normal surface-finishing processes. interference between opposing asperities in sliding or rolling applications is a source of friction, an... asperezas;
astm d2670 pin and v-block test
    Astm test method d2670 is for measuring the antiwear properties of liquid lubricants. the load is applied to the jaws and maintained by a toothed wheel. the wear is a function of the number of the...
astm d5302 sequence ve
    Astm test method d 5302, the sequence ve gasoline engine test, has been correlated with vehicles used in stop-and-go service prior to 1988, particularly with regard to sludge and valve train wear....
astm d5533 sequence iiif
    Astm test method d 5533, the sequence iiie gasoline engine test, has been correlated with vehicles used in high-temperature service prior to 1988, particularly with regard to oil thickening and va...
atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Measures the radiation absorbed by chemically unbound atoms by analyzing the transmitted energy relative to the incident energy at each frequency. the procedure consists of diluting the fluid samp...
automatic transmission fluid (atf)
    Fluid for automatic, hydraulic transmissions in motor vehicles.
axial-load bearing
    A bearing in which the load acts in the direction of the axis of rotation.
background contamination
    The total of the extraneous particles which are introduced in the process of obtaining, storing, moving, transferring and analyzing a fluid sample.
ball bearing
  1. An antifriction rolling type bearing containing rolling elements in the form of balls.

  2. A friction-reducing device consisting of hard steel balls in a circular race; also a descripti...
base number
  1. The amount of acid, expressed in terms of the equivalent number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide, required to neutralize all basic constituents present in 1 g of sample

  2. Основани...
base oil
    A base oil is a base stock or blend of base stocks used in an api-licensed engine oil.
базовое масло (для бурового раствора);
bellows seal
    A type of mechanical seal which utilizes bellows for providing secondary sealing and spring-type loading.
bernouilli’s theory
    If no work is done on or by a flowing, frictionless liquid, its energy, due to pressure and velocity, remains constant at all points along the streamline.
beta rating
    The method of comparing filter performance based on efficiency. this is done using the multi-pass test which counts the number of particles of a given size before and after fluid passes through a ...
beta-ratio
    The ratio of the number of particles greater than a given size in the influent fluid to the number of particles greater than the same size in the effluent fluid, under specified test conditions (s...
biocides
    Additive designed to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in liquids
biodegradation
  1. The chemical breakdown of materials by living organisms in the environment. the process depends on certain microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeast, and fungi, which break down molecules for su... биохимическое разложение; биодеградация процесс разложения химических веществ в окружающей среде под действием биологических систем. химикаты, поддающиеся биодеградации, обладают меньшей способностью сохраняться и накапливаться во внешней среде. в биодеградации важную 10 роль игра; biodeterioration;
black oils
    Lubricants containing asphaltic materials, which impart extra adhesiveness, that are used for open gears and steel cables.
blow-by
    Passage of unburned fuel and combustion gases past the piston rings of internal combustion engines, resulting in fuel dilution and contamination of the crankcase oil.
boiling range
    For a mixture of substances, such as a petroleum fraction, the temperature interval between the initial and final boiling points.
bomb oxidation
    A test for the oxidation stability of a product obtained by sealing it in a closed container with oxygen under pressure. the drop in pressure of the oxygen is a measure of the amount of oxidation ...
boundary lubrication
    Form of lubrication between two rubbing surfaces without development of a full-fluid lubricating film. boundary lubrication can be made more effective by including additives in the lubricating oil...
boyle’s law
    The absolute pressure of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely as the volume, provided the temperature remains constant.
breakdown maintenance
  1. Maintenance performed after a machine has failed to return it to an operating state.

  2. Предусмотренные аварийные работы (напр., очистных сооружении)
bright stock
    A heavy residual lubricant stock with low pour point, used in finished blends to provide good bearing film strength, prevent scuffing, and reduce oil consumption. usually identified by its viscosi...
brinelling
    Permanent deformation of the bearing surfaces where the rollers (or balls) contact the races. brinelling results from excessive load or impact on stationary bearings. it is a form of mechanical da...
brookfield viscosity
    Apparent viscosity in cp determined by brookfield viscometer, which measures the torque required to rotate a spindle at constant speed in oil of a given temperature. basis for astm method d 2983; ...
bubble point
  1. The differential gas pressure at which the first steady stream of gas bubbles is emitted from a wetted filter element under specified test conditions.

  2. Значение давления, при котором...
built-in-dirt
    Material passed into the effluent stream composed of foreign materials incorporated into the filter medium.
bulk modulus (of elasticity)
    A ratio of normal stress to a change in volume. a term used in determining the compressibility of a fluid. data for petroleum products can be found in the international critical tables.
burst pressure rating
    The maximum specified inside-out differential pressure that can be applied to a filter element without outward structural or filter-medium failure.
bypass filtration
    A system of filtration in which only a portion of the total flow of a circulating fluid system passes through a filter at any instant or in which a filter having its own circulating pump operates ...
bypass valve (relief valve)
    A valve mechanism that assures system fluid flow when a preselected differential pressure across the filter element is exceeded; the valve allows all or part of the flow to bypass the filter eleme...
c or cent.
    Centigrade
cafÉ
    Corporate average fuel economy
capillary viscometer
    A viscometer in which the oil flows through a capillary tube.
carbon (deposit)
    Solid black residue in piston grooves which can interfere with piston ring movement leading to wear and/or loss of power.
carbon residue
    Coked material remaining after an oil has been exposed to high temperatures under controlled conditions.
carbon type
    The distinction between paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic molecules. in relation to lubricant base stocks, the predominant type present.
carbonyl iron powder
    A contaminant which consists of up to 99.5% pure iron spheres.
carcinogen
  1. A cancer-causing substance. certain petroleum products are classified as potential carcinogens osha criteria. suppliers are required to identify such products as potential carcinogens on packa... cancerígeno(a), carcinógeno (a); канцероген;
cartridge seal
    A completely self-contained assembly including seal, gland, sleeve, mating ring, etc., usually needing no installation measurement.
case drain filter
    A filter located in a line conducting fluid from a pump or motor housing to reservoir.
case drain line
    A line conducting fluid from a component housing to the reservoir.
catalyst
  1. A substance that initiates or increases the rate of a chemical reaction, without itself being used up in the process.

  2. Катализатор

  3. A substance that initiates or changes th... cat; катализатор; катализатора;
catalytic converter
    An integral part of vehicle emission control systems since 1975. oxidizing converters remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (co) from exhaust gases, while reducing converters control nitrogen ox... каталитический конвертор устройство, устанавливаемое на автомобилях для уменьшения загрязнения атмосферы выхлопными газами. выяснилось, что сами конверторы могут служить источниками канцерогенной опасности, поскольку в них, в ходе химической реакции, обра;
catastrophic failure
    Sudden, unexpected failure of a machine resulting in considerable cost and downtime.