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Глоссарий по фотографии

color coupler
    A colorless substance contained in color film emulsions that, when exposed to chemical developing baths forms the color dyes that make up part of the layers of processed color films.
color negative film
    A film that forms a photographic image in which light tones are rendered dark (and vice versa) and colors are reproduced as their complements (such as blue being recorded as yellow); all of revers...
daylight-balanced
    A film that will reproduce colors faithfully when exposed in daylight. the film can also be used with flash, as properly made flash or strobes yield daylight-balanced light.
conversion filter
    A filter that gives allows daylight film to record color faithfully in artificial light or, conversely, for tungsten-balanced film in daylight. for example, orange conversion filters are used when...
cable release
    A flexible encased wire attached to a threaded metal coupler that screws into the shutter release button on the camera. when one end of the wire is depressed with a plunger the other end activates...
wide-angle lens
    A lens that offers a wide angle of view, usually in the 35 to 24mm focal length range. ultra-wide-angle lenses range from 20mm to 8mm. wide-angle lenses also allow use of very deep zones of focus....
mirror lens
    A lens where the light path is bent and reflected internally to increase the focal length of the lens; a simplified system that is usually less expensive than conventional super-telephoto (300mm a...
time exposure
    A long exposure, usually not handheld, for recording scenes at night or in very dim rooms.
reflected light meter
    A meter that reads light reflected from the subject. all in-camera meters are of this type.
autoexposure
    A method of exposure where aperture and shutter speed settings are first read, then set, by the camera`s exposure system. various autoexposure modes allow for customization or biasing the readings...
black-and-white
    A photographic film or paper used to create monochrome images. though we think of black and white mainly in terms of a gray scale, prints can have a wide variety of subtle tones, from blue- to bro...
soft focus
    A picture, or an area in a picture that is left slightly out-of-focus for effect, or a lens or filter that diffuses light and "softens" the overall scene.
desenfocado artistico;
program exposure mode
    A preset arrangement of aperture and shutter speed that is programmed into the exposure system of a camera to respond to a certain level of brightness when the camera is loaded with a certain spee...
contact print
    A print made the same size as the negative.
autoexposure lock
    A push-button, switch, or lever that locks in exposure after the initial reading has been made, regardless of a change in camera position or light conditions after the lock is activated. release o...
high contrast
    A scene where the range between the brightest and darkest areas is extreme, or is such that it may cause exposure problems. a film that renders scenes in high-contrast fashion. the absence of midd... alto contraste;
developing
    A series of chemical and physical actions done in a commercial lab or the home darkroom that converts light-struck film to an image that can be viewed directly or printed; making prints from negat... revelado .;
f-numbers
    A series of numbers designating the apertures, or openings at which a lens is set. the higher the number, the narrower the aperture. for example, f/16 is narrower (by one stop) than f/11--it lets ...
panning
  1. A shooting technique where the subject is followed during exposure; generally done with a slow shutter speed.

  2. The act of using a slow shutter speed, and moving the camera in the sam... образование почвенной корки;
b or bulb
    A shutter setting that indicates that the shutter will remain open for as long as the shutter release is pressed. the term originated with the rubber air shutter bulbs used to operate shutters in ...
ground glass
  1. A specially prepared glass used as the focusing screen in cameras.

  2. Glass having a surface that has been roughened, usually by sandblasting or by acid, to make it nontransparent.
depth of field preview button
    A switch, button, or electronic push-button that allows for preview of the depth of field of the set aperture in the viewfinder. during composition the lens is wide open, thus the depth of field i...
dx-coding
    A system of film cassette coding and in-camera pins that informs the camera`s exposure system that a specific speed and exposure length film is loaded. most modern 35mm cameras have this feature.<...
reflex viewing system
    A system of mirrors in an slr that makes the scene right-reading in the camera`s eye-level viewfinder.
previsualization
    A thought process that helps a photographer "see" what the photograph will look like on film, and/or a print, done as the picture is being composed.
variable contrast
    A type of black and white printing paper that when exposed under different color light yields different printing contrast grades.
zone focusing
    A way to focus that utilizes the depth of field scale rather than the actual distance from camera to subject. zone focusing is most useful for candid, street photography.
auxiliary lens
    An add-on optical device that alters the focal length of the prime lens for close-up, telephoto, or other special effects photography. the close-up devices, for example, usually comes in +1, +2, a...
pushing, push-processing
    An exposure/processing technique in which the effective speed of the film is raised, coupled with an increase in developing time. in actuality, it is deliberate underexposure of the film with exte...
close-up
    Any photograph made from a distance that is generally closer than our normal viewing distance. close-up pictures are often startling in the detail they reveal.
primer plano .; съемка крупным планом;
special effects
    Any technique, lens, filter, accessory, computer effect, use of film, etc. that converts or distorts the "reality" of nature in a picture. special effects can be sublime or ridiculous, d... efectos especiales;
tungsten-balanced
    Film that it balanced to reproduce colors faithfully when exposed under artificial tungsten light sources. also, the lamps that emit that light.
infrared film
    Film which is highly sensitive to red/near infrared radiation. a red filter should be used to get the best effect with this film.
fill-in flash
    Flash used outdoors, generally to balance a subject that is backlit. can also be used to control excessive contrast, add light to shadows, or brighten colors on an overcast day.
contrast grade
    In black and white printing, an indication of the contrast rendition the paper will yield. #0 and #1 are low contrast; #4 and #5 are high contrast. the "normal" contrast grade is #2.
dodging
    In conventional or digital printing and image manipulation, the selective reduction of density in certain areas of the scene.
burning-in
    In darkroom work, giving additional exposure to a portion of a print made from a negative to add density and tonal information. often used to balance tones in contrasty scenes. the same term is us...
washed out
    Jargon for seriously overexposed slides, or overexposed highlight areas within slides and prints. it`s as if the colors have been diluted to the extent that all pigments have been "washed out...
burnt-out
    Jargon that refers to loss of details in the highlight portion of a scene due to overexposure. with slide film, it might mean that no image detail has been recorded on the film, or that highlights...
close down
    Jargon that refers to making a photograph with less exposure than previously used. with apertures, using a narrower apertures; with shutter speed, using a faster shutter speed. for example, going ...
electronic flash
    Known as a flash gun, strobe, or speedlight, it consists of a gas-filled tube that is fired by an electrical charge. it can be mounted directly on the camera hot shoe (which links the shutter firi...
exposure meters
    Light reading instruments that yield signals that are translated to f-stops and shutter speeds. reflected-light meters read light reflected off the subject; incident meters reads light falling upo...
enlargement
  1. Making a print from a negative or slide; generally, making a print larger than standard size, such as an 8x10-inch or bigger "blowup".

  2. Расширение

  3. Увеличение цементация увеличением; расширение; увеличение; укрупнение;
overrides
    Making adjustments or intervening to change the camera`s autoexposure system reading. some overrides include exposure compensation and changing iso ratings.
single-lens-reflex
    Or slr. a type of camera that has a movable mirror behind the lens and a ground glass for viewing the image. film sits behind the mirror assembly, which swings out of the way when an exposure is m...
shutter release button
    The button that releases the shutter and ``fires`` the camera. many shutter release buttons have two stages-slight pressure actuates the meter or autofocus system (or both), further pressure fires...
correct exposure
    The combination of aperture and shutter speed that yields a full-toned negative or slide that yields the best possible tonal representation of the scene onto film or sensor. the constants in an ex...
digital darkroom
    The computer and image editing and manipulation programs.
digitize
    The conversion of analog (film, print) information to digital form by use of a scanner, digital sensor or camera.
квантовать по времени; дискретизировать;; оцифровывать; кодировать аналоговую информацию; преобразовывать в цифровой вид; представлять в цифровом виде;
selective focus
    The creative use of focus. focus can be set so that one plane or subject in a crowded scene emerges, or for sharpness near to far in a scene that covers miles. selective focus is achieved through ...
e-6
    The current developing process for the majority of today`s color slide films; the term also refers to films developed by this process, such as e-6 type films.
c-41
    The current process for all standard color negative films.
latent image
    The invisible image that is formed when the silver halide compounds in film are struck by light. upon development, this image, or series of light and dark tones, is made manifest.
imagen latente; imágen latente /;
incident light/incident meter
    The light that falls on a subject, rather than that which is reflected off it. many handheld meters are of the incident light reading type. incident readings are made from the subject with the met...
warm tone
    The look or mood of a print or slide that tends toward the amber, or yellow/red. in black and white, a brown or sepia-toned print, or a brown-black printing paper.
hyperfocal distance
  1. The nearest point in the scene which is in focus when the lens is focused at infinity. this distance changes according to the focal length of the lens and the aperture at which it is set. sett...
minimum aperture
    The smallest opening a lens affords. generally, wide angle lenses have a minimum aperture of f/22; normal lenses of f/16; and telephoto lenses of f/32.
sychronization,or sync
    The timing of the firing of the flash to coincide with the opening of the shutter so that the maximum light from that flash records on the film.
maximum aperture
    The widest opening, or f-stop a lens affords. an f/1.4 lens is referred to as fast because it has a relatively wide maximum aperture; an f/4.5 lens is slow because of its relatively narrow maximum...
darkroom
    The work space for developing and printing photographic film and making prints.
cuarto oscuro;
fine grain
    Usually found in slow speed films, a fine-grained image is one where the medium of light capture and storage, the silver halide grain, is virtually invisible in the print or slide. with high, or c...
remote trigger or digital cable release
    A device that allows the camera to be fired without pressing the button or touching the camera. helps eliminate movement of the camera during long exposures.
light meter
    A device that measures the amount of light in a scene. your dslr has one built in, it uses reflective readings (light bouncing off the subject coming back through the lens [ttl])
remote flash trigger
    A device used to fire speedlights off camera. pocket wizard is a popular brand.
tilt shift lens
    A lens that attempts to recreate the movements available when using a view camera. being able to tilt the front lens element allows for realignment of the plane of focus. shift allows adjusting th...
selfie
    A self portrait
wide angle lens
    Again simple answer is a lens that shows a wider field of view than a normal lens, which allows more to be fit into the frame. depending on the degree of wide angle there may also be edge distorti...
golden hour
    Also called “magic hour” is the hour right before sunset or right after sunrise. the sun is low on the horizon and it is an optimal time for photography.
nifty 50
    An old school prime 50mm lens, great to have
prime or fixed lens
    Any lens that does not zoom and is a set focal length such as a nifty 50mm lens. read our introduction to prime lenses.
subtractive lighting
    As the name implies it is the taking away of light to create a desired affect. commonly it involves holding a reflector or opaque panel over the subject’s head to block light from above and open u...
rear shutter curtain sync
    By default most cameras are set to front curtain sync which means that if the flash fires, it does so at the beginning of the exposure time. by setting to rear shutter curtain sync it fires the fl...
circles of confusion
    Closely related to the above bokeh, the textbook definition is: the largest blur spot that is indistinguishable from the point source that is being rendered. objects outside the depth of field of ...
dust bunnies
    Dark spots that appear on the image, caused by bits of dust on the digital sensor
camera resolution
    Expressed in megapixels is the dimensions your camera’s sensor is capable of capturing. for example canon’s new 6d has a resolution of 5472 x 3648 which equals 19,961,856, which they’ve rounded of...
normal lens
    Generally a 50mm lens (on a full frame sensor camera) is considered to be a “normal” lens because it is closest to what the human eye sees. if you have a cropped sensor that will be closer to 35mm...
blown out
    Having highlights that are off the chart on the right side of the histogram, having no detail in the white areas. eg: “the bride’s dress is blown out”