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Глоссарий терминов в легкой промышленности и текстиле

creel
  1. A framework arranged to hold slivers, roving, or yarns so that many ends can be withdrawn smoothly and evenly without tangling.

  2. A rack that holds spools and bobbins of yarn.

    ...
section beam
  1. A large flanged roll upon which warp yarn is wound at the beam warper in preparation for slashing.

  2. Small flanged or unflanged beams placed side by side on the shaft of a warp beam f...
pick counter
  1. A mechanical device that counts the picks as they are inserted during weaving.

  2. A mechanical device equipped with a magnifying glass used for counting picks (and/or ends) in finished...
pirn
  1. A wood, paper, or plastic support, cylindrical, or slightly tapered, with or without a conical base, on which yarn is wound.

  2. The double-tapered take-up yarn package from draw twisti...
breaking tenacity
    The tensile stress at rupture of a specimen expressed as newtons per tex (cn/tex).
industrial fabric
    A broad term for fabrics used for non-apparel and non-decorative uses. they fall into the following classes: · fabrics employed in industrial processes (e.g. filtration, polishing, and absorption)...
broken pick
    A broken filling yarn in a fabric. broken picks can result from: excessive shuttle tension, weak yarn, or filling coming in contact with a sharp surface. c
broken end
    A broken, untied warp yarn in a fabric. broken ends can result from: slubs, knots, improper shuttle alignment, shuttle hitting the warp shed, excessive warp tension, faulty sizing, and rough reeds...
manufactured fiber
    A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) produced from fiber forming substances which may be polymers synthesized from chemical compounds (acrylic, nylon, polyester, polyeth...
mock leno
    A combination of weaves having interlacing that tend to form the warp ends into groups in the cloth. this gives the imitation of an open structure that is characteristic of leno fabrics.
throwster
    A company that specializes in putting additional twist in yarn.
cabled twist
    A construction of thread, yarn, cord, or rope in which each successive twist is in the same direction opposite the preceding twists; i.e. an s/z/s, or z/s/z construction.
hopsacking
    A course, open, basket-weave fabric that gets its name from the plain-weave fabric of jute or hemp used for sacking in which hops are gathered.
let-off motion
    A device for controlling the delivery and tension of the warp during weaving.
uneven dyeing
    A fabric dyeing that shows variations in shade resulting from incorrect processing, or dyeing methods, or from the use of faulty materials.
bi-directional fabric
    A fabric having reinforcing fibers in two directions, i.e. in the warp (machine) direction and filling (cross-machine) direction.
impregnated fabric
    A fabric in which the interstices between the yarns are completely filled, as compared to sized or coated materials where the interstices are not completely filled.
broadcloth
    A fabric so named because it is woven in widths exceeding 29 inches.
coated fabric
    A fabric to which a substance such as lacquer, plastic, resin, rubber, or varnish has been applied in firmly adhering layers to provide certain properties, such as water impermeability.
slit tape
    A fabric, 12 inches, or less in width made by cutting wider fabric to the desired width.
polytetrafluoroethylene (ptfe) fiber
    A fluoride containing manufactured fiber characterized by high chemical stability, relative inertness and high melting point. the fiber has moderate tensile strength, resistance to chemicals and h...
textile materials
    A general term for fibers, yarn intermediates, yarn, fabrics, and products made from fibers.
grosgrain
    A heavy fabric with prominent ribs. grosgrain has a dressy appearance and is used in ribbons, vestments, and ceremonial cloths. h
needle loom
    A high-speed narrow fabric-weaving machine (loom) that uses a needle to insert filling across a warp. a needle loom uses a catch cord system to make a selvage on one edge of the weave and to retur...
packages
    A large selection of forms for winding yarn onto. examples include a cone, cheese, and pineapple package.
warp beam
    A large spool or flanged cylinder around which the warp yarn, or ends, are wound in a uniform and parallel arrangement.
bally ribbon mills (brm)
    A leader in the narrow fabrics industry. in business 90 years, it is known for its high quality goods, excellent customer service, and technical engineering expertise.
shuttless loom
    A loom in which a device other than a shuttle is used for weft insertion.
tenter frame
    A machine that dries fabric to a specified width under tension. the machine consists essentially of a pair of endless chains on horizontal tracks. the fabric is held firmly at the edges by pins, o...
rayon fiber
    A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose as well as manufactured fibers composed of regenerated cellulose in which the substituents have replaced not more than 15% of the hydrogen mo...
polyester fiber
    A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid, including bu...
aramid fiber
    A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming material is a long chain synthetic polyamide having at least 85% of its amide linkages (-nh-co-) attached directly to two aromatic rings.
nylon fiber
    A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polyamide having recurring amide groups (-nh-co-) as an integral part of the polymer chain.
olefin fiber
    A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed at least 85% by weight of ethylene, polyethylene, or other olefin unit. olefin fibers combine...
polyethylene fiber
    A manufactured fiber made of polymerized polyethylene units, often in monofilament form as well as in filament form. the fibers have low specific gravity, very low retention of moisture, the same ...
polypropylene fiber
    A manufactured olefin fiber made from polymers or copolymers of polypropylene. this is a tough fiber with a tenacity of 3.5 to 4.5 grams/denier and a melting point of 165° c. it is so light in wei...
moisture regain
    A measure of the increase in weight due to the adsorption of water by a fiber vs. its initial dry weight. usually expressed as %.
break factor
    A measure of yarn strength calculated as: 1) the product of breaking strength times the indirect yarn number. 2) the product of breaking strength times the reciprocal of the direct yarn number.
dobby
  1. A mechanical attachment on a loom that controls the harness to permit the weaving of geometric figures.

  2. An attachment to a loom that controls the warp threads through the raising of...
spinneret
    A metal disc containing numerous minute holes used in manufactured fiber extrusion. the spinning solution or melted polymer is forced through the holes to form fiber filaments.
tensile test
    A method of measuring the resistance of yarn or fabric to a force tending to stretch the specimen in one direction.
braided fabric
    A narrow fabric made by crossing a number of strands diagonally so that each strand passes alternately over or under one or more of the other strands.
taffeta
    A plain-weave fabric with a fine, smooth, crisp hand with a lustrous appearance. taffeta fabric usually has a fine cross rib made by using a heavier filling yarn than warp yarn.
twist setting
    A process for fixing the twist in yarns to deaden torque and to eliminate kinking during further processing. this process usually involves using steam.
warp drawing
    A process in which a number of threadlines, are orientated under essentially equal mechanical and thermal conditions by a stretching stage using variable speed rolls, then directly wound onto the ...
young’s modulus
    A property of perfectly elastic materials, it is the ratio of change in stress to change in strain within the elastic limits of the material. the ratio is calculated from the stress expressed in f...
yarn number
    A relative measure of the fineness of yarns.
doff
    A set of full packages, bobbins, spools, etc. produced by one machine.
jet loom
    A shuttleless loom that employs a jet of water, or air to carry the filling yarn through the shed. k
projectile loom
    A shuttleless loom that uses small, bullet like projectiles to carry the filling yarn through the warp shed. fill is inserted on the same side of the loom and a tucked selvage is formed.
air jet spinning
    A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air.
drop wires
    A stop-motion device utilizing metal wires suspended from warp or creeled yarns. when a yarn breaks, the wire drops, activating a switch that stops the machine.
knit fabric
    A structure produced by interlooping one or more ends of yarn or comparable material.
jacquard
    A system of weaving that utilizes a highly versatile pattern mechanism to permit the production of large, intricate designs and (at bally ribbon mills) shapes. the weave controls the action of one...
transition temperature
    A temperature at which some radical change, usually a phase change, in the appearance or structure of a substance occurs, i.e. melting point, boiling point.
balanced cloth
    A term describing a woven fabric with the same size yarn and the same number of threads per inch in both the warp and the fill direction.
loom-finished
    A term describing fabric that is sold in the condition in which it comes off the loom (see greige).
high modulus
    A term that refers to a material with a higher than normal resistance to deformation.
heat stabilized
    A term to describe fiber or yarn heat-treated to reduce the tendency of the fiber to shrink, elongate under a load, or at elevated temperatures.
put-up
    A term used to describe how a fabric is supplied. put-up is usually described in terms of length, on rolls, or bulk supplied and may have standards as to how many “cuts” are allowed per roll or bo...
yarn construction
    A term used to indicate the number of single yarns and the number of strands combined to form each successive unit of plied yarn or cord.
wear test
    A test for fabric wear, abrasion, flexibility, washing, crushing, creasing, etc., in which the fabric is made into a garment, worn for a specific length of time and then assessed for performance.<...
raw fiber
    A textile fiber in its natural state, such as silk or cotton as it comes from the bale.
alternating twist
    A texturing procedure in which s and z twist are alternately inserted in the yarn by means of a special heating apparatus.
two-for-one twister
    A twister that inserts twist at a rate of twice the spindle speed. u
basket weave
  1. A variation of the plain weave in which two or more warp and filling yarns are woven side to side to resemble a plaited basket.

  2. A variation on plain weave in which two or more warp ...
end out
    A void caused by a missing warp yarn.
leno weave
    A weave in which the warp yarns are arranged in pairs with one twisted around the other between picks of filling yarn. this type of weave gives firmness and strength to an open-weave fabric and pr...
mis-pick
    A weaving defect in which a pick is improperly interlaced, resulting in a break in the weave pattern.
filament yarn
    A yarn composed of continuous filaments assembled with or without twist.
multifilament
  1. A yarn consisting of many strands, as opposed to monofilament, which is one strand. most textile yarns are multifilament. n

  2. A yarn made up of multiple continuous filaments.

    <...
slub
    A yarn defect consisting of a lump, or thick place on the yarn caused by lint, or small lengths of yarn adhering to it.
cabled yarn
  1. A yarn formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns.

  2. A yarn formed by twisting two or more plied yarns together. cad: computer aided design.

  3. Пряжа, полученная путе...
core-spun yarn
    A yarn made by twisting fibers around a filament or a previously spun yarn, thus concealing the core.
ultraviolet resistance
    Ability to retain strength and resist deterioration on exposure to sunlight.
graphite fiber
    Although the terms carbon and graphite are used interchangeably, graphite fibers are more accurately defined as fibers that are 99+% carbonized, while the term carbon is used for any fiber carboni...
l.o.i (limiting oxygen index)
    An abbreviation for limiting oxygen index. it is a relative measure of flammability. the higher the value, the lower the flammability.