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Глосссарий терминов и сокращений по оптическим линзам

abbe value
    A measure of the degree to which light is dispersed when entering a lens. the average range is 20 to 60. a lower abbe value causes greater dispersion of light resulting in chromatic aberration (co...
accommodative vergence
    A convergence response (to turn the eyes inward) which occurs as a direct result of accommodation (eye focusing). achromatism- the ability of the eye to adjust the focal power to see objects at di...
acuity
  1. The ability to respond to faint sense impressions or to distinguish light differences between stimuli. adaptation/adaptive process – the maneuvers (conscious or unconscious, automatic or volun...
adduction
  1. Inward movement of the eye medially.

  2. The movement of a part of the body towards the midline or towards a neighbouring part. compare abduction. see illustration at anatomical terms i...
adjustable nose pads
    Type of bridge that consists of small pads made of plastic or silicone to help prevent slippage and aid in evenly distributing weight of glasses on bridge of the nose.
afferent fibers
    Nerve fibers which carry impulses from the organs to the nerve centers.
after-image phenomenon
    Ability of the eye to retain sight of an image during eye blinks. the most common example is seeing light after the flash of a camera.
against motion
    Objects sighted through convex (plus) lenses move in an opposite (against) direction as the convex lenses are moved from side to side.
air tempering
    The strengthening of a lens as a result of cooling a heated lens.
albinism
  1. Pigmentation is deficient or absent. may occur in skin, hair, and eyes. ocular albinism is a pigmentation deficiency occurring mainly in the eyes. individuals with albinism including ocular al...
ametropia
  1. Eye disorders that prevent a clear image from forming on the retina (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism). amblyopia exanopsia (lazy eye) – uncorrectable blurred vision due to a lack of use; the vi...
analytical examination
    A 21-point optometric examination. each point is a measurement of performance of a visual behavior pattern. these measurements, made through the application of prism and sphere, show the absorptio...
aniseikonia
    The image of an object as seen by one eye is different in size and shape from the other one.
anisometropia
  1. Unequal different refractive errors of the two eyes. annealing - the heating of a material to a sufficiently high temperature with subsequent controlled cooling to relieve any internal stress ...
anterior segment
    The space in front of the iris and behind the cornea, which includes cornea, conjunctiva, iris, lens and aqueous humor.
antimetropia
    One eye myopic (near sighted), the other hyperopic (far sighted).
anti-reflective coating
    A multi-layer thin coating applied to the lens surface to reduce the amount of reflection from the lens and increase light transmission.
aphakia
  1. A condition caused by the removal of the crystalline lens most often due to cataracts.

  2. The absence of the crystalline lens in the eye
aqueous humor
    A clear watery liquid in the chamber of the eye that flows between the cornea and the crystalline lens and nourishes both; secreted by the ciliary processes.
ar stack
    Combined layers making up an ar coating (usually five or more). composition of layers can vary between ar coaters.
asepsis
  1. Free from, absence of infection or infectious material.

  2. The absence of microorganisms which cause infection, usually achieved by sterilisation
aspheric
    A lens that is not spherical. the lens surface is marked by a variety of elliptically changing curvatures. an aspheric design allows a lens to be much flatter without compromising the optics of th...
aspheric compensation of power
    Power is compensated in each area of the lens by applying aspheric principles.
asthenopia
  1. Symptoms of “eye-strain” including headaches, tearing, itching, burning, and blurred vision.

  2. Same as eyestrain
asymmetrical design
    A lens design that has contour line patterns positioned differently into the nasal and temporal area to produce a right and left lens design. this is eye specific so the lens can not be rotated to...
atoric lens
    Lens with astigmatic power in which at least one principal meridian is not spherical.
automated refractor
    This method determines the eye’s refractive error and the best corrective lenses to be prescribed by using a computerized device that varies its optical power mechanically and prints out the resul...
axis aligner plier
    Any device used for aligning a cylinder axis of a spectacle lens at its proper angle.
axis cylinder
    That principal meridian which contains only the spherical power component of a sphero-cylinder lens. axis will intersect a spherical lens of minus power at its thinnest point and a spherical plus ...
axis indicator of lensometer
    A device in which a scale from 0? to 180? can be aligned to give the axis of cylinder power on a spectacle lens. b “b” box measurement – in lens measurement, the longest vertical distance from the...
balance lens
    A lens placed in a frame which looks like the lens for the opposite eye to balance cosmetics; similar in thickness and style with no specific rx power.
barium glass
    Commonly used for a type of crown glass, one of the ingredients is barium oxide added for the purpose of increasing refractive index, while maintaining relatively low dispersion. barrel - (bbl) – ...
baryta glass
    A type of glass containing lead for increasing the index together with barium to increase refractive index, while maintaining a relatively low dispersion.
base curve
    The singular dioptric curve on the front surface of a lens. this curve is generally in place when the lens blank is manufactured and as such will control the selection of back curves necessary to ...
basic formula
    The subjective; it is the lens power that alters the light rays entering an eye and causes a change in the focusing mechanism in the greatest degree without causing a subjectively detected alterat...
baume gauge
    Used to check the specific gravity of a polishing solution.
bevel edger
    A machine by which an uncut lens is given a bevel on its edge by a special lens grinding wheel. bi-centric grinding (slab off) – the process of grinding base up prism to correct vertical imbalance...
biconcave
    A lens style where both front and back surfaces are minus (concave).
двояковогнутый;
biconvex
    A lens style where both the front and back surfaces are plus (convex).
двояковыпуклый;
bifocal
    A lens with two focal points, one for distance vision and one for near. regular bifocals have a line between the prescriptions; progressive bifocals change gradually from the near to far prescript...
binocular pd
    The single measured distance from pupil center to pupil center. binocular (binocularity) vision – the blending of the separate images by each eye into a single image; allows images to be seen with...
bi-ocularity
    Using both eyes, but not together as a team.
birefrigence
    Type of lens aberration that is induced during the manufacturing process which results in chromatic aberration. a rainbow-like effect (sometimes called newton rings).
bitoric lens
    A lens, both surfaces of which are ground and polished, in toric or cylindrical form. blank, molded – a lens blank that is unfinished on both sides when it arrives from the lens factory. blank, se...
bleach
    A process to remove the tint from a dyed lens.
выщелачивать;
blended bifocals
    A round style bifocal type lens designed so that there is no discernable line of demarcation between the distance portion and the reading portion. the blended area is visually nonusable.
blended myo-disc
    Lenses have a full field curved or plano front surface with a high minus bowl-shaped surface on the ocular side surrounded by a plano surface called a carrier.
blepharitis
  1. A condition that describes an inflammation of the eyelid margins characterized by a sticky crust that forms on the eyelids.

  2. Inflammation of the eyelid
blinding glare
    Reflected glare caused by light reflected off smooth, shiny surfaces blocking vision.
blue blockers
    An orange colored tint formulated to block out ultraviolet radiation and reduce blue light which may be harmful to the eye.
blue blur
    The condition of unclear vision due to the scattered blue light in the visible spectrum.
bony orbit
    Either of two bony cavities in the skull containing an eye and its external structures; an eye socket.
box measurement
    The measurement of a lens or frame by incorporating it within a square and then measuring the horizontal and vertical in millimeters.
break point
    The point at which a person can no longer fuse (unite) two images into one. a blur point will occur before this point.
brow-bar
    A plastic or metal piece attached to the upper eyewire of a frame front to position the frame away from the wearer’s brow or to add stability to the frame design.
build-up pads
    Plastic pads that are cemented to the bridge section of the eyewire to reduce the bridge size and raise the frame front. c
c measurement
    The circumference of a lens.
cable temple
    An earpiece of metal, plastic, or combination thereof, with the portion in contact with the ear consisting of wound wire, with or without a core. this portion is typically bent in the shape of a s...
calipers
    A hand-held mechanical measuring instrument in the form of pliers, having two legs or jaws that can be adjusted to determine thickness, diameter, caliber, and/or distance between surfaces. caliper...
canthus
  1. The angle formed by the juncture of the eyelids.

  2. A corner of the eye canula canula
carrier lens
    The major portion of a lens that has a differing power component cemented or fused to it, creating the combined lens power.
cataract lens
    Lenses used to correct vision after cataract surgery.
cellulose acetate
  1. Common material used to make frame parts. also referred to as “zyl”.

  2. A material of the ester family derived by conversion of cellulose; used in the production of synthetic lacquers,...
cemented segment
    An added power ophthalmic lens bound, usually by epoxy resin, to a carrier.
center of rotation
  1. The imaginary point around which the eyeball pivots when moved.

  2. Центр вращения center text within controlвыравнивание текста внутри элемента управления по центру
center thickness
    The front-to-back measurement of a lens at its optical or geometric center; usually expressed in 0.1 mm using a caliper.
central retinal artery
    The blood vessel that carries blood into the eye; supplies nutrition to the retina.
central retinal vein
    The blood vessel that carries blood away from the retina.
cerium
    An oxide compound used for polishing a lens surface.
церий;
chalazion
  1. A small and frequently painful cyst of the eyelid resulting from a blocked meibomian gland.

  2. Same as meibomian cyst
chamfering
  1. Use of a tool to remove all residual lens material when drilling a hole.

  2. Снятие фасок; срез кромок (в сапр)
скашивание;
chassis
  1. The metal eyewire and bridge components of a combination front that holds the lenses. chemical hardening (tempering) – a chemical process by which the lens is strengthened by timed treatment i... marco .; armazón;
chuck
  1. A padded metal or plastic circular piece used to support a lens during the edging process.

  2. A device with adjustable jaws used for centering and holding a cutting bit, drill bit, etc...
ciliary muscles
    A band of muscle and fibers that are attached to the lens that controls the shape of the lens and allows the lens to accommodate (change focus).
ciliary processes
  1. The extensions or projections of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor.

  2. The ridges behind the iris to which the lens of the eye is attached
clip-on
    An apparatus that holds two lenses (usually colored) to filter different light wavelengths. a piece attached to a frame.
colmascope
    A device which through use of polarized light, demonstrates strain existing in a piece of lens material.