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Глоссарии и словари бюро переводов Фларус

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Глоссарий по проходческим щитам (тоннелингу)

Туннели представляют собой достаточно сложные конструкции, вмещающие два и более параллельных проезда для встречного движения, служебную технику и запасные выходы. Туннель — это длинный, полностью закрытый со всех сторон искусственный горизонтальный проход, построенный под землей с отверстиями на каждом конце.



cased bore
  1. A bore in which a pipe, usually a steel casing, is inserted simultaneously with the boring operation.

  2. Bore in which a pipe, usually a steel sleeve, is inserted simultaneously with t...
slurry chamber
  1. A chamber in which excavated material is mixed with slurry for transport through the return line to the separation plant at the surface. the slurry chamber is located behind the cutter wheel o...
desktop study
    A compilation and review of available site, geotechnical, and other information pertinent to a project. typically performed at the outset of a project, before field explorations and detailed desig...
utility tunneling
    A construction method for excavating an opening beneath the ground without continuous disturbance of the ground surface. the excavation is of sufficient diameter to permit personnel access, and al...
microtunneling
    A construction method to install pipe into the ground with no imposed size limitations provided the following are used during construction:
nq
    A diamond core wire line tube drill bit size where the hole diameter is 75.7 mm and the core diameter is 47.6 mm.
thrust ring
  1. A fabricated ring that is mounted on the face of the jacking frame. it is intended to transfer the jacking force from the jacking frame to the thrust-bearing area of the pipe section being jac...
intermediate jacking station (ijs)
    A fabricated steel cylinder fitted with hydraulic jacks, which is incorporated into a pipeline between two specially fabricated pipe segments. its function is to provide additional thrust in order...
jacking shield
  1. A fabricated steel cylinder from within which the excavation is carried out either by hand or machine. an articulated steering section and steering jacks are incorporated into the shield to al...
trenchless technology
  1. A family of construction techniques for installing or rehabilitating underground infrastructure with minimal disruption to surface traffic, businesses, and residents. also includes technologie...
marsh funnel viscosity
    A measure of the flow rate of a fluid through a calibrated funnel. a marsh funnel is typically used to measure drilling fluid and slurry viscosity, in seconds per quart (sec/qt) of fluid. the mars...
pipe brake
    A mechanical device designed to prevent the mtbm and pipe string from moving back into the shaft.
launch seal
  1. A mechanical seal, usually consisting of a rubber flange that is mounted to the wall of the jacking shaft. the flange seal is distended by the mtbm as the machine passes through the shaft. the...
open-cut
    A method by which access is gained to the required underground level for installation, maintenance, or inspection of a pipe, conduit, or cable. the excavation is then backfilled, and the surface i...
in-line microtunneling
    A method of replacing an existing pipe by filling the pipe with flowable fill to prevent fluid loss and then excavating the entire pipe and surrounding ground with an mtbm for a new installation.<...
k-rail
    A modular concrete or plastic barrier used to separate lanes of traffic. also known as jersey barrier.
pilot tube method
  1. A multistage method of accurately installing a product pipe to line and grade by use of a guided pilot tube followed by upsizing to install the product pipe. the pilot tube method does not fit...
trailing can
    A principal module that is part of a shield machine such as an mtbm or tunnel boring machine (tbms); its use depends on the installation dimensions required and the presence of an articulated join...
two-pass
    A procedure by which the carrier pipe is installed within a jacked casing.
slurry separation
  1. A process in which excavated material is separated from the circulation slurry. mechanical separation is typical, although gravity separation in pits or tanks is possible with coarse-grained s...
over excavation
    A process of excavating more material than the theoretical volume of the tunnel based on diameter and advanced distance. over excavation can lead to ground settlement and the formation of voids.
compression ring
  1. A ring fitted between the end-bearing area of the leading pipe bell and the trailing pipe spigot to help distribute jacking forces more uniformly. a compression ring is attached to the trailin...
berlin construction method
    A sewer collection system developed in berlin, germany, whereby sewer laterals are brought to a manhole and then dropped into the sewer interceptor. this method of connecting laterals to sewer is ...
mixed reach
    A significant change in ground type, characteristics, or behavior along the excavated tunnel between the jacking and receiving shafts. this term is not currently defined by astm or uscs.
hydrofracture
  1. A special form of inadvertent return in which drilling fluid reaches the surface or waterway. also called a frac-out.

  2. The inadvertent loss of drilling fluid from the borehole annulu...
top hat
    A steel can with a faceplate bolted to a reception shaft wall to receive the arriving mtbm.
horizontal directional drilling (hdd)
  1. A surface-launched trenchless technology for the installation of pipes, conduits, and cables. hdd creates a pilot bore along the design pathway and reams the pilot bore in one or more passes t...
pipe ramming
  1. A trenchless installation method whereby a percussive hammer is attached, via an adapter, to an open-end casing, which is then driven through the ground. to create an open casing, the spoils w...
auger mtbm
  1. A type of microtunnel boring machine that uses auger flights to remove the spoils through a separate, smaller casing placed through the jacking pipe.

  2. Microtunnel boring machine (mtb...
utility monitoring point (ump)
    An instrument designed to measure movement of an individual utility when exposed to construction activities.
settlement point or marker
    An instrument installed at ground surface or driven into the ground to monitor vertical ground deformations before, during, and after construction.
rescue shaft
    An unplanned additional shaft required to remove obstacles/obstructions and/or retrieve or repair the mtbm. the rescue shaft may need to function as a jacking shaft to complete the drive.
guided boring method
    Another term for the pilot tube method, in which an auger boring power unit is used with a pilot tube’s guidance and steering system.
cutter wheel
    Any rotating tool or system of tools on a common support that excavates at the face of a bore.
waler
    Beam used within a braced excavation as support to control wall deflections.
ground cover
    Distance between the ground surface and the crown of the pipe.
face pressure
    Earth and groundwater pressures applied against the cross-sectional area of the microtunnel face.
cohesive soils
    Earth materials containing 20 percent or more soil particles passing the no. 200 sieve.
cohesionless soils (noncohesive soils)
    Earth materials containing less than 20 percent soil particles passing the no. 200 sieve. any free-running soil, such as sand or gravel, whose strength depends on friction between particles.
epb machine
    Earth pressure balance tunneling machine, by which mechanical pressure is applied to the material at the face and controlled to provide the correct counterbalance to earth and groundwater pressure...
jacking shaft
  1. Excavation from which trenchless technology equipment is launched for the installation of a pipeline. the jacking shaft may incorporate a thrust wall to spread reaction loads to the ground and...
reception shaft
    Excavation into which the microtunneling equipment is driven and recovered.
backfill grouting
    Grout injected into the void space between the carrier pipe and casing after the drive is completed.
effective stresses
    In a saturated mass of soil or rock, the total stress p minus pore water pressure, uw.
adapter ring
  1. In microtunneling, a fabricated ring, usually made from steel, that is mounted on the first pipe of the pipe string. this ring is intended to transfer the jacking force from the microtunnel bo...
buried objects
    Items in the ground that can affect mtbm advancement and line and grade control. buried objects that prevent continued advancement along the design path, which includes tolerances, are called obst...
push ring adapter
  1. Mechanical component mounted on the thrust ring to prevent the thrust ring from coming into contact with and damaging the pipe collar.

  2. Mechanical structure mounted on the thrust rin...
spacers
    Mechanical structures used to transfer the jacking force from the jacking thrust ring to the pipe and to accommodate lengths of pipe that are longer than the stroke length of the jacks.
slurry lines
    Parallel hoses or pipes that transport spoils and slurry from the face of a slurry microtunneling machine through the return line to the ground surface for separation, and then return the slurry t...
carrier pipe
  1. Pipe for conveyance of water, gas, sewage, or other products and services. some carrier pipe can be installed by direct jacking (i.e., one-pass microtunneling).

  2. Pipe to be rehabilit...
direct-jacked pipe
    Pipe installed in the ground and serves as the casing and carrier pipe.
specials
    Pipe sections immediately ahead of and behind the ijs. specials have ends that are specifically manufactured to physically accommodate the ijs.
jacking pipes
    Pipes designed to be installed using pipe jacking techniques.
interjack pipes
    Pipes specially designed for use with an intermediate jacking station.
upsizing
  1. Process of creating a larger diameter mtbm than a machine with the original factory configuration. also referred to as skinning. also, any method that increases the cross-sectional area of an ...
water jetting
  1. Process of using the internal cleansing mechanism of the cutter head, by which high-pressure water is sprayed from nozzles to help remove cohesive soils.

  2. Internal cleaning mechanism...
exit seal
  1. Same as a launch seal except for the retrieval of the machine at the reception shaft. used in high groundwater and unstable soils to prevent loss of ground.

  2. Same as launch seal exce...
belly pans
    Shims or other steel plates added to the bottom of the mtbm to adjust the machine’s location within the excavation. also known as belly plates.
potholing
  1. Small, carefully dug, nonmechanized excavation, used to locate a utility or other subsurface feature.

  2. Method using vacuum excavation for obtaining visual confirmation of utilities a...
cemented soils
    Soils in which the particles are held together by a naturally occurring or man-made chemical agent that changes the soils’ physical and mechanical properties.
closed-face
    Term referring to one mode of operation of a traditional tbm.
open-face
    Term referring to one mode of operation of a traditional tbm.
carbon footprint
    The amount of carbon dioxide generated and caused by a construction project, including any traffic effects.
cutability
    The capacity of rock to be spalled, ripped, chipped, and broken into smaller pieces to allow the advance of the mtbm. key properties affecting cutability include the frequency of discontinuities, ...
gauge cutter
    The cutter that creates the gauge cut and is subject to wear.
mixed ground
    The excavated tunnel zone, without a defined interface, that contains soil and coarse fractions of gravels, cobbles, and boulders (i.e., silt with boulders). this term is not currently defined by ...
maximum anticipated jacking force
    The largest anticipated jacking force required to advance jacking pipe and machine along a drive.
maximum allowable jacking force
    The largest jacking force that can be applied to the jacked pipe, allowing for an appropriate factor of safety.
inadvertent return
    The loss of drilling fluid, including slurry and lubrication, from the slurry or lubrication system. a special form of inadvertent return, where the fluid exceeds the strength and confining pressu...
n-value
    The number of blows per foot required to drive a standard penetration test (spt) soil sampler into the ground during geotechnical exploration. the n-value is often used to estimate in situ consist...
gauge cut
    The outermost projection of the excavation, measured as a diameter. the gauge cut is subject to cutter wear and to the differential cut.
annular thickness
    The radial distance between the excavated radius created by the gauge cutter and the outside radius of the jacking pipe. the radial distance is equal to the overcut (gauge cut) plus the shield cut...
differential cut
    The spiral, screwlike pattern created on the excavated surface as the gauge cutter is advanced while being rotated around the bored periphery of the cutter wheel.
shield cut
    The theoretical difference between the radial measurement of the mtbm shield and the jacking pipe equal to (mtbm od – pipe od)/2.
contaminated plume
    The underground trace of an environmental pollutant.
earth piercing
    The use of a tool that comprises a percussive hammer within a suitable, generally torpedo-shaped casing. the hammer may be pneumatic or hydraulic. the term is usually associated with nonsteered de...
tunnel horizon
    The vertical band within the ground where the tunnel is excavated. includes one tunnel diameter above the crown and one tunnel diameter below the invert.




Глоссарий по проходческим щитам (тоннелингу)


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